ћед”нивер - MedUniver.com ¬се разделы сайта ¬идео по медицине  ниги по медицине ‘орум консультаций врачей  
–екомендуем:
ѕедиатри€:
ѕедиатри€
√енетика в педиатрии
ƒетска€ аллергологи€ и иммунологи€
ƒетска€ гастроэнтерологи€
ƒетска€ гематологи€
ƒетска€ и подросткова€ стоматологи€
ƒетска€ кардиологи€
ƒетска€ онкологи€
ƒетска€ пульмонологи€
ƒетска€ ревматологи€
ƒетска€ фармакологи€
»нфекционные болезни у детей
Ќеонатологи€
Ќеотложные состо€ни€ детей
ѕодросткова€ медицина
–ост и развитие ребенка
ќрганизаци€ педиатрической помощи
‘орум
 

јвторы трудов (статей) использованные при подготовке материалов по детской гастроэнтерологии в педиатрии

¬ стать€х на сайте использованы следующие сокращени€:

  • ∞F Ч температура по ‘аренгейту
  • ∞C Ч температура по ÷ельсию
  • 5-Ќ“ Ч 5-гидроксииндолуксусна€ кислота мочи
  • јЅ Ч антибиотик(и)
  • јЅЋј Ч аллергический бронхолегочный аспергиллез
  • јЅ“ Ч антибактериальна€ терапи€
  • ј¬ Ч атриовентрикул€рный
  • ј√ Ч артериальна€ гипертензи€
  • ј√н Ч антиген
  • јƒ Ч артериальное давление
  • јƒ√ Ч антидиуретический гормон
  • јƒ— Ч анатоксин дифтерийно-столбн€чный
  • јƒ—-ћ Ч анатоксин дифтерийно-столбн€чный (малые дозы)
  • јƒ‘ Ч аденозиндифосфорна€ кислота, аденозиндифосфат
  • ј ƒ— Ч анатоксин коклюшно-дифтерийно-столбн€чный
  • ј “√ Ч адренокортикотропный гормон
  • ј Ў Ч аортокоронарное шунтирование
  • јЋ“ Ч аланинаминотрансфераза
  • амер. Ч американский
  • јћ  Ч азот мочевины крови
  • јћ‘ Ч аденозинмонофосфорна€ кислота, аденозинмонофосфат
  • јЌј Ч антинуклеарные антитела
  • анат. Ч анатомический
  • англ. Ч английский
  • јѕ‘ Ч ангиотензин-превращающий фермент
  • ј–¬“ Ч антиретровирусна€ терапи€
  • ј–ѕ Ч активность ренина в плазме крови
  • ACT Ч аспартатаминотрансфераза
  • ј“л Ч антитело
  • ј“‘ Ч аденозинтрифосфорна€ кислота, аденозинтрифосфат
  • јуƒ Ч аутосомно-доминантный
  • ју– Ч аутосомно-рецессивный
  • ј‘ѕ Ч α-фетопротеин
  • ј‘— Ч антифосфолипидный синдром
  • ј’Ё Ч ацетилхолинэстераза
  • ј÷’ Ч ацетилхолин
  • ј„“¬ Ч активированное частичное тромбопластиновое врем€
  • Ѕј Ч бронхиальна€ астма
  • Ѕјƒ Ч биологически активна€ добавка
  • ЅјЋ Ч бронхоальвеол€рный лаваж
  • Ѕј– Ч бипол€рное аффективное расстройство (I или II типа)
  • Ѕ   Ч большой круг кровообращени€
  • ЅЋƒ Ч бронхолегочна€ дисплази€
  • ЅЋЌѕ√ Ч блокада левой ножки пучка √иса
  • Ѕћ—Ё Ч бюро медико-социальной экспертизы
  • Ѕѕ Ч брюшна€ полость
  • ЅѕЌѕ√ Ч блокада правой ножки пучка √иса
  • Ѕ–ћ Ч базовые реанимационные меропри€ти€
  • Ѕ–Ќ— Ч быстро разрешившеес€ необъ€снимое событие
  • Ѕ÷∆ Ч бацилла  альметта-√ерена в т.ч. Ч в том числе
  • Ѕ‘ѕ - биофизический профиль плода
  • в. Ч век
  • в/ Ч внутри... в сложносоставных словах (напр. в/сосудистый, в/черепной и т.п.)
  • в/а Ч внутриартериально
  • в/в Ч внутривенно
  • в/к Ч внутрикожно
  • в/м Ч внутримышечно
  • вв. Ч века
  • в-во Ч вещество
  • ¬¬Ё Ч военно-врачебна€ экспертиза
  • ¬√ƒ Ч внутриглазное давление
  • ¬√„ Ч вирус герпеса человека
  • ¬ƒѕ Ч верхние дыхательные пути
  • ¬∆  Ч внутрижелудочковое кровоизли€ние
  • ¬«  Ч воспалительные заболевани€ кишечника
  • ¬«ќћ“Чвоспалительные заболевани€ органов малого таза
  • ¬»ѕ Ч вазоактивный интестинальный пептид
  • ¬»„ Ч вирус иммунодефицита человека
  • ¬ћѕ Ч высокотехнологична€ медицинска€ помощь
  • ¬ћ— Ч внутриматочное средство (спираль)
  • ¬Ќ Ч вирусна€ нагрузка
  • ¬Ќ— Ч вегетативна€ нервна€ система
  • ¬ќ¬ Ч ¬елика€ ќтечественна€ война
  • ¬ќ√ћ Ч высокогорный отек головного мозга
  • ¬ќ« Ч ¬семирна€ организаци€ здравоохранени€
  • ¬ќЋ Ч высокогорный отек легких
  • ¬ќћ  Ч врач, осуществл€ющий медицинский контроль
  • ¬ќѕ Ч врач общей практики
  • ¬ѕ¬ Ч верхн€€ пола€ вена
  • ¬ѕ√ Ч вирус простого герпеса
  • ¬ѕ– Ч врожденные пороки развити€
  • ¬ѕ— Ч врожденный порок сердца
  • ¬ѕ„ Ч вирус папилломы человека
  • ¬–“ Ч вспомогательные репродуктивные технологии
  • ¬—ќ Ч водно-солевой обмен
  • ¬„ƒ Ч внутричерепное давление
  • ¬„»¬Ћ Ч высокочастотна€ искусственна€ вентил€ци€ легких (HFV)
  • ¬ЁЅ Ч вирус Ёпштейна-Ѕарр
  • г Ч грамм
  • г. Ч год
  • √-6-‘ƒ Ч глюкозо-6-фосфатдегидрогеназа
  • √јћ  Ч гамма-аминомасл€на€ кислота
  • √Ѕ Ч гипертоническа€ болезнь
  • √ЅЌ Ч гемолитическа€ болезнь новорожденного
  • √Ѕќ Ч гипербарическа€ оксигенаци€
  • √«“ Ч гиперчувствительность замедленного типа
  • гист. Ч гистологический
  • √  Ч грудна€ клетка
  • √ ћѕ Ч гипертрофическа€ кардиомиопати€
  • √ — Ч глюкокортикостероид(ы)
  • √Ћ√ Ч гемофагоцитарный лимфогистиоцитоз
  • √Ћѕ— Ч геморрагическа€ лихорадка с почечным синдромом
  • √ћ Ч головной мозг
  • √ћ- —‘ Ч гранулоцитарно-макрофагальный колониестимулирующий фактор
  • √ћ‘ Ч гуанозинмонофосфат
  • √н–√ Ч гонадотропин-рилизинг-гормон
  • √Ќ“ Ч гиперчувствительность немедленного типа
  • √ѕќƒ Ч грыжа пищеводного отверсти€ диафрагмы
  • √–ƒ— Ч гипоксическа€ реакци€ дыхательной системы греч. Ч греческий
  • √“‘ Ч гуанозинтрифосфат
  • √”— Ч гемолитико-уремический синдром
  • √ц Ч герц
  • √ЁЅ Ч гематоэнцефалический барьер
  • √Ё– Ч гастроэзофагеальный рефлюкс
  • √Ё–Ѕ Ч гастроэзофагеальна€ рефлюксна€ болезнь
  • дЅ Ч децибел
  • ƒ¬— Ч диссеминированное внутрисосудистое свертывание
  • ƒ√“ Ч дигидротестостерон
  • ƒƒ Ч дифференциальна€ диагностика, дифференциально-диагностический
  • ƒƒЅј Ч длительнодействующие β2-агонисты
  • ƒƒ  Ч дифференциально-диагностический критерий (критерии)
  • ƒƒ–ћ - допустимый диапазон распределени€ макронутриентов
  • ƒ» Ч доверительный интервал
  • ƒ  Ч диагностический критерий
  • ƒ ј Ч диабетический кетоацидоз
  • ƒ ћѕ Ч дилатационна€ кардиомиопати€
  • ƒћ∆ѕ Ч дефект межжелудочковой перегородки
  • ƒћѕѕ Ч дефект межпредсердной перегородки
  • ƒћ— Ч добровольное медицинское страхование
  • ƒЌ Ч дыхательна€ недостаточность
  • ƒЌ  Ч дезоксирибонуклеинова€ кислота
  • ƒЌ“ Ч дефекты нервной трубки
  • ƒќ - дыхательный объем
  • ƒќ‘ј Ч дигидроксифенилаланин
  • ƒѕ Ч дыхательные пути
  • ƒѕ  Ч двенадцатиперстна€ кишка
  • ƒѕћ Ч дата последней менструации
  • ƒѕѕ - допустимый предел потреблени€
  • др. Ч другие
  • ƒ“ѕ Ч дорожно-транспортное происшествие
  • ƒ÷ѕ Ч детский церебральный паралич
  • ≈ƒ Ч единица действи€, единица
  • ∆¬ѕ Ч желчевывод€щие пути
  • ∆ƒј Ч железодефицитна€ анеми€
  • ∆≈Ћ Ч жизненна€ емкость легких
  • ∆ Ѕ Ч желчекаменна€ болезнь
  • ∆   Ч желудочно-кишечное кровотечение
  • ∆ “ Ч желудочно-кишечный тракт
  • ∆Ќ¬Ћѕ Ч жизненно необходимые и важные лекарственные препараты (список, перечень)
  • «¬”– Ч задержка внутриутробного развити€
  • «Ћ Ч здоровые люди (лица)
  • «Ќќ Ч злокачественное новообразование
  • «ќ Ч здравоохранение
  • «ќ∆ Ч здоровый образ жизни
  • «—Ќ Ч застойна€ сердечна€ недостаточность
  • ијѕ‘ Ч ингибиторы ангиотензин-превращающего фермента
  • »Ѕ— Ч ишемическа€ болезнь сердца
  • »¬Ћ Ч искусственна€ вентил€ци€ легких
  • »√ — Ч ингал€ционные глюкокортикостероиды
  • »«Ћ Ч интерстициальные заболевани€ легких
  • » ѕ Ч иммунокомпрометированные пациенты
  • »Ћ Ч интерлейкин
  • »ЋƒЅ Ч интегрированное лечение детских болезней
  • »ћ Ч инфаркт миокарда
  • »ћјќ Ч ингибитор(ы) моноаминоксидазы
  • »ћбпЅ“ Ч инфаркт миокарда без подъема сегмента ST
  • »ћѕ Ч инфекци€ мочевых (мочевывод€щих) путей
  • »ћп«“ Ч инфаркт миокарда с подъемом сегмента
  • ST »ћ“ Ч индекс массы тела
  • »ќЋ Ч интраокул€рна€ линза
  • »ѕѕ Ч ингибиторы протонной помпы (протонного насоса)
  • »ѕѕѕ Ч инфекции, передаваемые половым путем
  • »—— Ч индивидуальные спасательные средства истор. Ч историческое итал. Ч италь€нский
  • »“ѕ Ч идиопатическа€ тромбоцитопеническа€ пурпура
  • »“Ў Ч инфекционно-токсический шок »‘ј Ч иммуноферментный анализ
  •  ј Ч коронарна€(ые) артери€(и)
  • к¬ Ч киловольт
  • кг Ч килограмм
  •  ƒЅј Ч короткодействующие β2-агонисты
  •  ƒƒ Ч конечно-диастолическое давление
  •  ƒќ Ч конечно-диастолический объем
  •  ƒ– Ч конечно-диастолический размер
  • кит. Ч китайский
  • ккал Ч килокалори€
  • кл. Ч клетки, клеток
  •  ћѕ Ч качество медицинской помощи
  •  ој Ч коэнзим ј, кофермент ј
  •  ќ≈ Ч колониеобразующа€ единица
  •  ќ  Ч комбинированные оральные контрацептивы
  •  ѕ“ Ч когнитивно-поведенческа€ терапи€
  •  – Ч клинические рекомендации
  •  —ƒ Ч конечно-систолическое давление
  •  —ќ Ч конечно-систолический объем
  •  —– Ч конечно-систолический размер
  •  “ Ч компьютерна€ томографи€
  •  “¬– Ч компьютерна€ томографи€ высокого разрешени€
  •  “√ Ч кардиотокографи€
  •  ‘  Ч креатинфосфокиназа
  •  ў— Ч кислотно-щелочное состо€ние
  • л Ч литр
  • л/о Ч ложноотрицательный
  • л/п Ч ложноположительный
  • Ћј Ч легочна€ артери€
  • лат. Ч латинский
  • Ћ√ Ч лютеинизирующий гормон
  • Ћƒ√ Ч лактатдегидрогеназа
  • Ћ∆ Ч левый желудочек
  • Ћќ– Ч имеющий отношение к оториноларингологии (Ћќ–-врач, Ћќ–-органы)
  • Ћѕ Ч лекарственный препарат
  • Ћѕ¬ѕ Ч липопротеины высокой плотности
  • ЋѕЌѕ Ч липопротеины низкой плотности
  • ЋѕќЌѕ Ч липопротеины очень низкой плотности
  • Ћѕ” Ч лечебно-профилактическое учреждение
  • Ћ— Ч лекарственное средство
  • Ћ” Ч лимфатический узел, лимфоузлы
  • Ћ‘  Ч лечебна€ физкультура
  • м.б. Ч может (мог, могут, могли) быть
  • ћ/∆ Ч соотношение мужчин и женщин
  • максƒ Ч максимальна€ доза
  • максЌƒ Ч максимальна€ начальна€ доза
  • макс–ƒ Ч максимальна€ разова€ доза
  • макс—ƒ Ч максимальна€ суточна€ доза
  • ћјЌ  Ч метод амплификации нуклеиновых кислот
  • ћјќ Ч моноаминоксидаза
  • ћ¬ѕ Ч мочевывод€щие пути мг Ч миллиграмм
  • ћƒЅ Ч мышечна€ дистрофи€ Ѕеккера
  • ћƒƒ Ч мышечна€ дистрофи€ ƒюшенна
  • ћƒћј Ч метилендиоксиметамфетамин
  • ME Ч международна€ единица
  • мед. Ч медицинский
  • мес Ч мес€ц
  • ћ∆ Ч молочна€ железа
  • ћ∆ѕ Ч межжелудочкова€ перегородка
  • ћ« Ч министерство здравоохранени€
  • мин Ч минут(а)
  • минƒ Ч минимальна€ доза
  • мин—ƒ Ч минимальна€ суточна€ доза
  • ћ Ѕ Ч мочекаменна€ болезнь
  • ћ Ѕ-10 Ч ћеждународна€ классификаци€ болезней 10-го пересмотра
  • ћ Ѕ-11 Ч ћеждународна€ классификаци€ болезней 11-го пересмотра
  • мк¬ Ч микровольт
  • мкг Ч микрограмм
  • ћ   Ч малый круг кровообращени€
  • мкл Ч микролитр
  • мл Ч миллилитр
  • млн Ч миллион
  • млрд Ч миллиард
  • мм Ч миллиметр
  • мм рт.ст. Ч миллиметр ртутного столба ммоль Ч миллимоль
  • ћЌЌ Ч международное непатентованное наименование
  • ћЌќ Ч международное нормализованное отношение
  • ћќ Ч медицинска€ организаци€
  • ћѕ Ч медицинска€ помощь
  • ћѕ— Ч мочеполова€ система
  • ћ– Ч магнитно-резонансный
  • ћ–-венографи€ Ч ћ–“ вен и синусов головного мозга
  • ћ–“ Ч магнитно-резонансна€ томографи€
  • мс Ч миллисекунда
  • ћ— “ Ч мультиспиральна€ компьютерна€ томографи€
  • ћ—Ё Ч медико-социальна€ экспертиза
  • ћ“ Ч масса тела
  • мтƒЌ  Ч митохондриальна€ дезоксирибонуклеинова€ кислота
  • ћ“– Ч масса тела при рождении
  • ћЁ - миалгический энцефаломиелит
  • н.э. Ч нашей эры
  • Ќј Ч нервна€ анорекси€
  • Ќјƒ Ч никотинамидадениндинуклеотид
  • ЌјƒЌ Ч никотинамидадениндинуклеотид (восстановленный)
  • Ќјƒ‘ Ч никотинамидадениндинуклеотидфосфат
  • Ќј∆Ѕѕ Ч неалкогольна€ жирова€ болезнь печени напр. Ч например
  • ЌЅ Ч нервна€ булими€
  • Ќƒќ Ч негативный детский опыт
  • нед Ч недели
  • нем. Ч немецкий
  • нм Ч нанометр
  • Ќћ»÷ Ч национальный медицинский исследовательский центр
  • Ќћѕ Ч неотложна€ (медицинска€) помощь
  • Ќћ“ Ч низка€ масса тела
  • Ќѕј Ч нормативно-правовой акт
  • Ќѕ¬ Ч нижн€€ пола€ вена
  • Ќѕ¬— Ч нестероидные противовоспалительные средства
  • Ќ— Ч нервна€ система
  • Ќ—“ - нестрессовый тест
  • Ќ–ѕ Ч нормы рациона питани€
  • Ќ—√ Ч нейросонографи€
  • ЌЁ  Ч некротический энтероколит
  • Ќя  Ч неспецифический €звенный колит
  • ќј  Ч общий анализ крови
  • ќјћ Ч общий анализ мочи
  • ќјѕ Ч открытый артериальный проток
  • ќЅѕ Ч органы брюшной полости
  • ќ√Ѕ Ч остра€ горна€ болезнь
  • ќ√ћ Ч отек головного мозга
  • ќƒЌ Ч остра€ дыхательна€ недостаточность
  • ќ∆—— Ч обща€ железосв€зывающа€ способность сыворотки
  • ќ« Ч организаци€ здравоохранени€
  • ок. Ч около
  • ќ – Ч обсессивно-компульсивное расстройство
  • ќ — Ч острый коронарный синдром
  • ќЋЋ Ч острый лимфобластный лейкоз
  • ќћ— Ч об€зательное медицинское страхование
  • ќћ“ Ч органы малого таза
  • ќЌћ  Ч острое нарушение мозгового кровообращени€
  • ќЌћѕ Ч отделение неотложной (медицинской) помощи
  • ќЌћ“ Ч очень низка€ масса тела
  • ќќ« Ч органы (организации/управлени€) здравоохранени€
  • ќќЌ Ч ќрганизаци€ ќбъединенных Ќаций
  • ќѕ∆ Ч ожидаема€ продолжительность жизни
  • ќѕЌ Ч остра€ почечна€ недостаточность
  • ќѕ—— - общее периферическое сосудистое сопротивление
  • ќ–¬» Ч остра€ респираторна€ вирусна€ инфекци€
  • ќ–ƒ— Ч острый респираторный дистресс-синдром
  • ќ–« Ч острое респираторное заболевание
  • ќ–»“ Ч отделение реанимации и интенсивной терапии (ICU)
  • ќ—¬ќ Ч общее содержание воды в организме
  • ќ‘¬ Ч объем форсированного выдоха
  • ќ‘¬1 Ч объем форсированного выдоха за 1-ю секунду
  • ќ÷  Ч объем циркулирующей крови
  • п.з. Ч поле зрени€ (микроскопа)
  • п/к Ч подкожно
  • ѕј¬ Ч психоактивные вещества
  • ѕ¬ Ч протромбиновое врем€
  • ѕ¬  Ч периферический венозный катетер
  • ѕ¬Ћ Ч перивентрикул€рна€ лейкомал€ци€
  • ѕг Ч простагландин
  • ѕ√√ Ч программа государственных гарантий оказани€ гражданам –‘ бесплатной медицинской помощи
  • ѕƒ ¬ Ч положительное давление конца выдоха (PEEP)
  • ѕ∆ Ч правый желудочек
  • ѕ∆∆ Ч поджелудочна€ железа
  • ѕ∆  Ч подкожно-жирова€ клетчатка (гиподерма)
  • ѕ ј Ч почечный канальцевый ацидоз
  • ѕ ћƒ Ч по€сно-конечностна€ мышечна€ дистрофи€
  • ѕЋ—√ Ч п€тниста€ лихорадка —калистых гор
  • ѕћƒ– Ч предменструальное дисфорическое расстройство
  • ѕћ  Ч пролапс митрального клапана
  • ѕћ— Ч предменструальный синдром
  • ѕћ—ѕ Ч первична€ медико-санитарна€ помощь
  • ѕЌ∆  Ч полиненасыщенные жирные кислоты
  • ѕќ–»“Ч педиатрическое отделение реанимации и интенсивной терапии
  • ѕќ“ Ч постуральна€ ортостатическа€ тахикарди€
  • ѕѕ¬ Ч пневмококкова€ полисахаридна€ вакцина
  • ѕѕќј  Ч пр€мые пероральные антикоагул€нты
  • ѕѕ“ Ч площадь поверхности тела
  • ѕ—ј Ч простатоспецифический антиген
  • ѕ—¬ Ч пикова€ скорость выдоха
  • ѕ—¬’ Ч прогрессирующий семейный внутрипеченоч-ный холестаз
  • ѕ“ Ч психотерапи€
  • ѕ“¬ Ч протромбиновое врем€
  • ѕ“√ Ч паратиреоидный гормон
  • ѕ“» Ч протромбиновый индекс
  • ѕ“—– Ч посттравматическое стрессовое расстройство
  • ѕ‘Ё Ч пищевой фолатный эквивалент
  • ѕ÷– Ч полимеразна€ цепна€ реакци€
  • ѕЎ√ Ч пурпура Ўенлейна-√еноха
  • ѕў∆ Ч паращитовидные железы
  • ѕЁ“ Ч позитронно-эмиссионна€ томографи€ р/ Ч раз в ... (с, мин, ч, сут и т.п.)
  • –ј Ч ревматоидный артрит
  • –јј— Ч ренин-ангиотензин-альдостеронова€ система разг. Ч разговорное разл. Ч различное
  • –ј— Ч расстройство аутистического спектра
  • –ƒ— Ч респираторный дистресс-синдром рим. Ч римский
  • –»‘ Ч реакци€ иммунофлюоресценции
  • – » Ч рандомизированные клинические исследовани€
  • – ћѕ Ч рестриктивна€ кардиомиопати€
  • –»√ј Ч реакци€ непр€мой гемагглютинации
  • –Ќ - ретинопати€ недоношенных
  • –Ќ  Ч рибонуклеинова€ кислота
  • –Ќѕ - рекомендуемую норму потреблени€
  • –ќ√  Ч рентгенографи€ (рентгенограмма) органов грудной клетки
  • –ќЋ—Ќ— Ч рекомендации по оценке и лечению при сортировке в неотложных ситуаци€х
  • –ѕ√ј Ч реакци€ пр€мой гемагглютинации
  • р-р Ч раствор
  • р-ритель Ч растворитель
  • ––  Ч рецепторы ретиноевой кислоты
  • PPM Ч расширенные реанимационные меропри€ти€
  • –—¬ Ч респираторно-синцитиальный вирус
  • –—ƒ Ч расстройство стереотипных движений
  • –—  Ч реакци€ св€зывани€ комплемента
  • –—ѕ - расчетна€ средн€€ потребность
  • –“√ј Ч реакци€ торможени€ гемагглютинации
  • –“Ќ√ј Ч реакци€ торможени€ непр€мой гемагглютинации
  • –‘ Ч –оссийска€ ‘едераци€
  • –’– Ч ретиноевые ’-рецепторы
  • –„ј Ч радиочастотна€ абл€ци€
  • –Ё— Ч ретикулоэндотелиальна€ система
  • с Ч секунда
  • св-во Ч свойство
  • —јћ - синдром аспирации мекони€
  • —¬ƒ— Ч синдром внезапной детской смерти
  • —√я Ч синдром гиперстимул€ции €ичников
  • —ƒ Ч сахарный диабет
  • —ƒ-1 Ч сахарный диабет 1-го типа
  • —ƒ-2 Ч сахарный диабет 2-го типа
  • —ƒ¬√ Ч синдром дефицита внимани€ и гиперактивности
  • —≈ Ч субъединица
  • —∆  Ч свободные жирные кислоты
  • —«ƒ - служба защиты детей
  • —«—“ Ч системное(ые) заболевание(€) соединительной ткани
  • —»« Ч средства индивидуальной защиты
  • —»ќ«—Ч селективный ингибитор обратного захвата серотонина
  • —»ќ«—Ќ Ч селективные ингибиторы обратного захвата серотонина и норэпинефрина
  • — ј Ч серповидно-клеточна€ анеми€
  • — ¬ Ч серповидно-клеточна€ болезнь
  • — ¬ Ч системна€ красна€ волчанка
  • — ‘ Ч скорость клубочковой фильтрации
  • —Ћ– Ч сердечно-легочна€ реанимаци€
  • см Ч сантиметр
  • см вод.ст. Ч сантиметр вод€ного столба
  • —ћ∆ Ч спинномозгова€ жидкость
  • —ћ» Ч средства массовой информации
  • —ћќ Ч страхова€ медицинска€ организаци€
  • —ћѕ Ч скора€ медицинска€ помощь
  • —ћЁ Ч судебно-медицинска€ экспертиза
  • —Ќ Ч сердечна€ недостаточность
  • —Ќ—јƒ√ Ч синдром неадекватной секреции јƒ√
  • —ќј— Ч синдром обструктивного апноэ сна (во сне) совр. Ч современный
  • —ќЁ Ч скорость оседани€ эритроцитов
  • —ѕ»ƒ Ч синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита
  • —ѕ я Ч синдром поликистозных €ичников
  • —ѕќЌ Ч синдром полиорганной недостаточности
  • —–¬ Ч —-реактивный белок
  • —–  Ч синдром раздраженного кишечника
  • —р—ƒ Ч средн€€ суточна€ доза
  • ——¬ Ч синдром —терджа-¬ебера
  • ——¬– Ч синдром системной воспалительной реакции
  • ——« Ч сердечно-сосудистые заболевани€
  • ——— Ч сердечно-сосудиста€ система
  • ———” Ч синдром слабости синусового узла
  • —“ Ч —индром “уретта
  • —“√ Ч соматотропный гормон
  • —“– Ч стойкое (хроническое) моторное или вокальное тикозное расстройство
  • сут Ч сутки
  • —’” Ч синдром хронической усталости
  • т.д. Ч так далее
  • т.е. Ч то есть
  • т.к. Ч так как
  • т.о. Ч таким образом
  • т.п. Ч тому подобное
  • “3 Ч трийодтиронин
  • “4 Ч тироксин
  • “јЌ  Ч тест амплификации нуклеиновых кислот
  • “Ѕ— Ч тазобедренный сустав
  • “√¬ Ч тромбоз глубоких вен
  • “√—  Ч трансплантаци€ гемопоэтических стволовых клеток
  • “»ј Ч транзиторна€ ишемическа€ атака
  • “»јЅ Ч тонкоигольна€ аспирационна€ биопси€
  • “ћќ Ч тверда€ мозгова€ оболочка
  • TH Ч торговое наименование лекарственных средств
  • “ѕ√√ Ч территориальна€ программа государственных гарантий оказани€ гражданам –‘ бесплатной медицинской помощи
  • “ѕћ Ч травматическое повреждение мозга
  • ““ Ч температура тела
  • ““√ Ч тиреотропный гормон
  • “‘– Ч трансформирующий фактор роста
  • “÷ј Ч трициклические антидепрессанты
  • тыс. Ч тыс€ча
  • “Ёƒ Чтранзиторна€ эритробластопени€ детского возраста
  • “ЁЋј Ч тромбоэмболи€ легочной артерии
  • “Ёќ Ч тромбоэмболические осложнени€
  • ”«ƒ— Ч ультразвуковое дуплексное сканирование
  • ”«» Ч ультразвуковое исследование
  • устар. Ч устаревшее
  • ”‘ Ч ультрафиолетовый
  • ”‘ќ Ч ультрафиолетовое облучение
  • ‘јѕ Ч фельдшерско-акушерский пункт
  • ‘¬ Ч фракци€ выброса
  • ‘¬ƒ Ч функции внешнего дыхани€
  • ‘∆≈Ћ Ч форсированна€ жизненна€ емкость легких
  • ‘« Ч ‘едеральный закон
  • физиол. Ч физиологический
  • ‘  Ч функциональный класс
  • ‘ — Ч фиброколоноскопи€
  • ‘ ” Ч фенилкетонури€
  • ‘Ќ Ч физическа€ нагрузка
  • ‘»ќ Ч фактор некроза опухоли
  • ‘ќћ— Ч федеральный фонд об€зательного медицинского страховани€
  • ‘ќ— Ч фосфорорганические соединени€
  • ‘ѕ Ч фибрилл€ци€ предсердий
  • фр. Ч французский
  • ‘—√ Ч фолликулостимулирующий гормон
  • ‘Ё√ƒ— Ч фиброэзофагогастродуоденоскопи€
  • ’Ѕѕ Ч хроническа€ болезнь почек
  • ’√„ Ч хорионический гонадотропин человека
  • ’ƒЌ Ч хроническа€ дыхательна€ недостаточность
  • хим. Ч химическа€
  • ’Ќ«Ћ Чхронические неспецифические заболевани€ легких
  • ’ќЅЋ Ч хроническа€ обструктивна€ болезнь легких
  • ’ѕЌ Ч хроническа€ почечна€ недостаточность
  • ’— Ч холестерин
  • ’—Ќ Ч хроническа€ сердечна€ недостаточность
  • XT Ч химиотерапи€
  • ÷¬ƒ Ч центральное венозное давление
  • ÷¬  Ч центральный венозный катетер
  • ÷»  Ч циркулирующие иммунные комплексы
  • ÷ћ¬ Ч цитомегаловирус
  • ÷Ќ— Ч центральна€ нервна€ система
  • ÷ќ√ Ч циклооксигеназа
  • ÷ѕƒ Ч церебральное перфузионное давление
  • ÷—“— Ч церебральный сольтер€ющий синдром ч Ч час
  • „ƒ Ч частота дыхани€
  • „ƒƒ Ч частота дыхательных движений
  • „ ¬ Ч чрескожное коронарное вмешательство
  • „ћЌ Ч черепно-мозговые нервы
  • „ћ“ Ч черепно-мозгова€ травма
  • „Ќ Ч черепные нервы
  • „— Ч чувствительность/специфичность („— 97%/87%)
  • „—— Ч частота сердечных сокращений
  • „——ѕ - частота сердечных сокращений плода
  • „“¬ Ч частичное тромбопластиновое врем€
  • Ў √ Ч шкала комы √лазго
  • Ўќѕ Ч шейный отдел позвоночника
  • ў∆ Ч щитовидна€ железа
  • √÷‘ Ч щелочна€ фосфатаза
  • Ёј– Ч эквивалент активности ретинола
  • Ёƒ“ј Ч этилендиаминтетрауксусна€ кислота (этилендиаминтетраацетат)
  • Ё √ Ч электрокардиографи€
  • Ё ћќ Ч экстракорпоральна€ мембранна€ оксигенаци€
  • Ё ќ Ч экстракорпоральное оплодотворение
  • Ё — Ч электрокардиостимул€тор, элекгрокардиостимул€ци€
  • Ёћ√ Ч электромиографи€
  • Ёћ  Ч электронна€ медицинска€ карта
  • Ёћѕ Ч экстренна€ медицинска€ помощь
  • ЁЌћѕ Ч экстренна€ и неотложна€ медицинска€ помощь
  • ЁЌћ“ Ч экстремально низка€ масса тела
  • Ё““ Ч эндотрахеальна€ трубка
  • Ёхо √ Ч эхокардиографи€
  • ЁЁ√ Ч электроэнцефалографи€
  • ёƒћ Ч ювенильный дерматомиозит
  • ё»ј Ч ювенильный идиопатический артрит
  • яЅ Ч €звенна€ болезнь
  • јј Ч амилоид A (amyloid ј)
  • јј– Ч јмериканска€ академи€ педиатрии (American Academy of Pediatrics)
  • ABC Ч алгоритм неотложной помощи Ђдыхательные пути-дыхание-кровообращениеї (Airways-Breathing-Circulation)
  • ј¬—ј3 Ч белковый член ј“‘-св€зывающей кассеты ј3
  • ј¬—¬11Ч ген ј“‘-св€зывающей кассеты, 11-й член подсемейства ¬ (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family ¬ member 11)
  • ј¬—¬4 Ч ген ј“‘-св€зывающей кассеты, 4-й член подсемейства ¬ (ATP-binding cassette 4 gene)
  • ј¬——2 Ч ген, кодирующий 2-й член подсемейства — ј“‘-св€зывающих кассет (ATP-binding cassette sub-family — member 2)
  • ABCDE Ч алгоритм неотложной помощи Ђдыхательные пути-дыхание-кровообращение-неврологический статус-внешний видї (Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability- Exposure)
  • ABCG5/G8 Ч гетеродимер переносчика ј“‘-св€зывающей кассеты ABCG5 и ABCG8 (The heterodimer of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG5 and ABCG8)
  • AC Ч до еды (при назначени€х) Ч ante cibum
  • ј—≈– Ч јмериканска€ коллеги€ врачей неотложной помощи (American College of Emergency Physicians)
  • ACOG Ч јмериканска€ коллеги€ акушеров и гинекологов (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)
  • AHA Ч јмериканска€ кардиологическа€ ассоциаци€ (American Heart Association)
  • ALTE Ч очевидное опасное дл€ жизни событие (apparent life-threatening event)
  • APLS Ч курсы расширенных реанимационных меропри€тий в педиатрии, спонсируемые јмериканской академией педиатрии и јмериканской коллегией врачей неотложной помощи (Advanced Pediatric Life Support)
  • ARPKD Ч аутосомно-рецессивный поликистоз почек
  • ASCVD-риск Ч риск развити€ атеросклеротического сердечно-сосудистого заболевани€ (ArterioSclerotic Cardiovascular Disease, ASCVD)
  • AVPU Ч шкала дл€ оценки уровн€ сознани€ (Ђв €сном сознанииї; Ђреакци€ на вербальные раздражителиї; Ђреакци€ на больї; Ђбез сознани€ї) (alert, verbal, pain, unresponsive)
  • BCS Ч митохондриальный шаперон BCS1 (mitochondrial chaperone BCS1)
  • BIN Ч биноминальна€ номенклатура Ђживойї природы
  • BiPAP Ч режим искусственной вентил€ции легких с двум€ уровн€ми положительного давлени€ (bilevel positive airway pressure) = ¬–ј–
  • BNP Ч натрийуретический пептид ¬-типа Ч мозговой (¬ (brain)-type natriuretic peptide)
  • BRUE Ч быстро разрешившиес€ необъ€снимые событи€ (Brief resolved unexplained events)
  • BSEP Ч насос выведени€ солей желчных кислот
  • CADASIL Ч церебральна€ аутосомно-доминантна€ артериопати€ с подкорковыми инфарктами и лейкоэнцефалопатией (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)
  • CAPS Ч криопирин-ассоциированный периодический синдром (cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome)
  • CBIT Ч комплексное поведенческое воздействие при тиках (Comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics)
  • CD Ч кластеры дифференцировки (clusters of differentiation)
  • CDC Ч ÷ентр по контролю и профилактике заболеваний, —Ўј (Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • CDG Ч врожденные нарушени€ гликозилировани€ (Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation)
  • CFTR Ч трансмембранный регул€тор муковисцидоза (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator)
  • CH Ч гемолитический комплемент (hemolytic complement)
  • CLLS Ч шкала оценки острой горной болезни озера Ћуиз у детей (Childrens Lake Louise Score)
  • CMT Ч Ўарко-ћари-“ута болезнь (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease)
  • —–ј– Ч посто€нное положительное давление в дыхательных пут€х (Constant Positive Airway Pressure)
  • CYP Ч цитохром общий
  • DAF Ч фактор ускорени€ распада (decay-accelerating factor)
  • DGAT1 Чдиацилглицерин-1-ацилтрансфераза (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1)
  • DHR Ч дигидрородамин (dihydrorhodamine)
  • DSM Ч ƒиагностическое и статистическое руководство по психическим расстройствам (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
  • EAST syndrome Ч эпилепси€, атакси€, сенсоневральна€ тугоухость и тубулопати€ (epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and tubulopath)
  • EBM Ч доказательна€ медицина (Evidence based medicine)
  • EPCAMЧ молекула адгезии эпителиальных клеток (epithelial cell adhesion molecule)
  • ESC Ч ≈вропейское общество кардиологии (European Society of Cardiology)
  • EXIT Ч лечение вне матки во врем€ родов (Ex utero intrapartum treatment)
  • FAST Ч сфокусированна€ сонографи€ брюшной полости при травме (focused assessment with sonography in trauma)
  • FDA Ч  омитет по контролю за лекарственными веществами и пищевыми добавками, —Ўј (Food and Drug Administration)
  • FFR Ч фракционный резерв кровотока (Fractional Flow Reserve)
  • FGF-23 Ч фактор роста фибробластов-23 (Fibroblast growth factor-23)
  • FIC 1 Чсемейный внутрипеченочный холестаз 1-го типа, болезнь Ѕайлера (familial intrahepatic cholestasis)
  • FiO2 Ч фракци€ кислорода (во вдыхаемом воздухе, газовой смеси)
  • FISH Ч флуоресцентна€ in situ гибридизаци€ (fluorescence in situ hybridization)
  • FLAIR Ч восстановление инверсии с ослаблением жидкости (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery)
  • FMF Ч семейна€ средиземноморска€ лихорадка (Familial Mediterranean fever)
  • GATA Ч gata-св€зывающий белок
  • HADH Ч гидроксилацил- ој-дегидрогеназа (Hydro-xyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase)
  • HAV Ч вирус гепатита ¬ (hepatitis A virus)
  • Hb Ч гемоглобин
  • HBcAg Ч сердцевинный антиген вируса гепатита ¬
  • HBeAg Ч антиген вируса гепатита ¬
  • HBsAg Ч поверхностный антиген вируса гепатита ¬
  • HBV Ч вирус гепатита ¬ (hepatitis ¬ virus)
  • HCV Ч вирус гепатита — (hepatitis — virus)
  • HDV Ч вирус гепатита D (hepatitis D virus)
  • HFNC Ч назальные канюли высокого потока (heated, high-flow nasal cannula)
  • Hib Ч гемофильна€ палочка типа ¬ (Haemophilus influenzae ¬ type)
  • HLA Ч лейкоцитарные антигены (главного комплекса гистосовместимости) человека (human leukocyte antigens)
  • HR Ч отношение рисков (hazard ratio)
  • HRT Ч терапи€ отмены привычки (Habit reversal therapy)
  • Ht Ч гематокрит
  • HTLV Ч “-лимфотропный вирус человека (human T-lymphotropic virus)
  • Ig Ч иммуноглобулин
  • IgA Ч иммуноглобулин A
  • IgE Ч иммуноглобулин E
  • IgG Ч иммуноглобулин G
  • IgM Ч иммуноглобулин M
  • IL Ч интерлейкин
  • IPEX Ч ’-сцепленный синдром иммунной дисре-гул€ции, полиэндокринопатии и энтеропатии (Immunedysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy, X-linked)
  • IQ Ч коэффициент умственного развити€ (intelligence quotient)
  • JAK Ч €нус-киназа (Janus kinase)
  • LFA Ч антиген, активирующий функцию лейкоцитов (Lymphocyte function-associated antigen)
  • LT Ч лейкотриен
  • MALT Ч лимфоидна€ ткань слизистой оболочки (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)
  • MASP Ч ћ—Ћ-ассоциированна€ серинова€ протеаза (MBL-associated serine protease)
  • MBL Ч маннозо-св€зывающий лектин (mannose-
  • binding lectin)
  • MCP Ч мембранный белок-кофактор (membrane cofactor protein)
  • MDR3 Ч белок множественной лекарственной устойчивости 3 (multidrug resistance protein 3)
  • MELAS Ч митохондриальна€ энцефалопати€, лактоацидоз и инсультоподобные эпизоды (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes)
  • MERRF Ч миоклоническа€ эпилепси€ с рваными красными волокнами (Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers)
  • Mr Ч кажуща€с€ молекул€рна€ масса
  • MRP Ч белок с множественной лекарственной устойчивостью (multidrug-resistant protein)
  • MRSA Ч метициллинрезистентный золотистый стафилококк
  • MSSA Ч метициллинчувствительный золотистый стафилококк
  • NB! Ч важно, обратить внимание (Nota bene)
  • NICE Ч Ќациональный институт здоровь€ и клинического совершенствовани€ (качества медицинской помощи) ¬еликобритании (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence)
  • NK Ч естественные клетки-киллеры (natural killer)
  • NMDA Ч N-метил-D-аспартат (N-methyl-D-aspartate)
  • NMDA Ч N-метил-D-аспартатные рецепторы
  • NNT Ч число больных, которых необходимо пролечить, чтобы достичь какого-то указанного эффекта (Number Need to Treatment)
  • OR Ч отношение шансов (odds ratio)
  • paCO2 Ч парциальное давление углекислого газа в артериальной крови
  • PALS Ч курсы расширенных реанимационных меропри€тий в педиатрии (Pediatric Advanced Life Support)
  • PANDAS Ч аутоиммунное нейропсихиатрическое расстройство в детском возрасте, ассоциированное со стрептококковой инфекцией (Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection)
  • PANS Ч острый нейропсихиатрический синдром в детском возрасте (Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome)
  • paO2 Ч парциальное давление кислорода в артериальной крови
  • PAS Ч фуксинсерниста€ кислота, реактив Ўиффа (periodic acid-Shiff)
  • PC Ч после еды (при назначени€х) Ч post cibum р—O2 Ч парциальное давление углекислого газа
  • PCSK-9 Ч пропротеинова€ конвертаза субтилизин-кекси-нового типа 9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin type 9)
  • PFAPA Ч периодическа€ лихорадка с афтозным стоматитом, фарингитом и лимфаденитом (Periodic Fevers with Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Adenitis)
  • PFIC Ч семейный внутрипеченочный холестаз (familial intrahepatic cholestasis)
  • Pg Ч простагландин
  • pH Ч водородный показатель
  • PIM Ч показатель летального исхода у детей (Pediatric Index of Mortality)
  • piO2 Ч парциальное давление кислорода во вдыхаемом
  • воздухе
  • рO2 Ч парциальное давление кислорода
  • POLG Ч субъединица ƒЌ -полимеразы у
  • PRISA II Ч оценка риска госпитализации у детей II (Pediatric Risk of Admission)
  • PRISM Ч риск летального исхода у детей (Pediatric Risk of Mortality)
  • PRN Ч при (по) необходимости (Pro re nata Ч при возникновении обсто€тельств)
  • PRSS Ч ген сериновой протеазы
  • PS. Ч примечание (Post scriptum)
  • PUVA-терапи€ Ч псорален-ультрафиолет ј-терапи€ (psoralen and ultraviolet ј)
  • Q#H Ч каждые # часов (при назначени€х) Ч quaque ... hora
  • QAM Ч каждое утро (при назначени€х) Ч quaque ante meridiem
  • QPM Ч каждый вечер (при назначени€х) Ч quaque post meridiem
  • RAG Ч ген, активирующий рекомбиназу
  • RePEATЧ пересмотренный инструмент дл€ оценки педиатрической неотложной медицинской помощи (Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool)
  • RF Ч ревматоидный фактор
  • Rh Ч резус(-фактор)
  • RhЂ-ї Ч резус-отрицательн(ый)
  • RhЂ+ї Ч резус-положительн(ый)
  • ROHHAD Ч быстро развивающеес€ ожирение с дисфункцией гипоталамуса, гиповентил€цией и спонтанной дисрегул€цией (rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation)
  • RR Ч относительный риск (relative risk или risk ratio) RW Ч реакци€ ¬ассермана (reaction of Wassermann)
  • SaO2 Ч сатураци€ артериальной крови кислородом SatO2 Ч насыщение крови кислородом
  • ScvO2 Ч насыщение кислородом центральной венозной крови (Central venous oxygen saturation)
  • SD Ч стандартное отклонение (standart deviation) SFTPA Ч ген сурфактантного белка A
  • SFTPB Ч ген сурфактантного белка ¬
  • SFTPC Ч ген сурфактантного белка —
  • SPINK Ч ингибитор сериновой протеазы
  • SpO2 Ч насыщение (сатураци€) гемоглобина кислородом spp. Ч виды (при родовом имени микроорганизмов)
  • Src. Ч источник информации, библиографическа€ ссылка (source)
  • STAT1 Ч сигнальный преобразователь и активатор транскрипции 1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription)
  • TA Ч международна€ анатомическа€ терминологи€ TCR Ч T-клеточный рецептор (T-cell receptor)
  • TLRs Ч “олл-подобные рецепторы (Toll-like receptors) TNF Ч фактор некроза опухоли (tumor necrosis factor)
  • TORCH Ч токсоплазмоз, краснуха, цитомегаловирусна€ инфекци€, герпес и другие инфекции (Toxoplasmosis, Other infections, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus Herpes simplex)
  • TPM Ч мутаци€ тропомиозина (mutation of the tropomyosin)
  • TRAP Ч синдром обратной артериальной перфузии близнецов (twin reversed arterial perfusion)
  • TRAPS Ч периодический синдром, ассоциированный с рецептором фактора некроза опухоли (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome)
  • Щ Ч торгова€ марка
  • URL Ч интернет-ссылка, адрес интернет-ресурса (Uniform Resource Locator)
  • VEGF Ч фактор роста эндотели€ сосудов (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
  • WPW Ч синдром ¬ольфа-ѕаркинсона-”айта (Wolff-Parkinson-White)
  • XLA Ч ’-сцепленна€ агаммаглобулинеми€ (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
  • aDG-RD Ч дистрофии, св€занные с a-дистрогликанами (alpha dystroglycan-related dystrophies)
  • β-’√„ Ч β-субъединица хорионического гонадотропина человека

¬ ходе подготовки статей по детской гастроэнтерологии в педиатрии дл€ пользователей сайта ћед”нивер использованы труды следующих авторов:

  1. Hasan A, Gardner A, Devlin M, Russell C: Submucous cleft palate with bifid uvula, J Pediatr 165:872, 2014
  2. Subcommittee of Hyperbilirubinemia. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation, Pediatrics 114(1):p297Цp316, 2004
  3. The Cholestasis Guidelines Committee. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Clinical Guideline: Guideline for the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infants: recommendations of the north American society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology and nutrition, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:115Ц128, 2004
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain: Chronic abdominal pain in children, Pediatrics 115:812Ц815, 2003
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee and NASPGHAN Committee on Chronic Abdominal Pain: Chronic abdominal pain in children: a technical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:249Ц261, 2005
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee and NASPGHAN Committee on Chronic Abdominal Pain: Chronic abdominal pain in children: a clinical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:245Ц248, 2005
  7. Auth MKH, Vora R, Farrelly P, et al: Childhood constipation, BMJ 345:38Ц43, 2012
  8. Bairdain S, Dinakar P, Mooney DP: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in children, J Pediatr Surg 50:1177Ц1179, 2015
  9. Burgers R, Levin AD, Di Lorenzo C, et al: Functional defecation disorders in children: comparing the Rome II with the Rome III criteria, J Pediatr 161:615Ц620, 2012
  10. Carty HM: Paediatric emergencies: non-traumatic abdominal emergencies, Eur Radiol 12:2835Ц2848, 2002
  11. Carvalho RS, Michail SK, Ashai-Khan F, Mezoff AG: An update in pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition: a review of some recent advances, Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 38:197Ц234, 2008
  12. Chelimsky TC, Chelimsky GG: Autonomic abnormalities in cyclic vomiting, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 44:326Ц330, 2007
  13. Chuang F, Lin JS, Yeung C, et al: Intestinal angiodysplasia: an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in children, Pediatr Neonatol 52:214Ц218, 2011
  14. El-Chammas K, Majeskie A, Simpson P, et al: Red flags in children with chronic abdominal pain and CrohnТs diseaseЧa single center experience, J Pediatr 162:783Ц787, 2013
  15. Fitzpatrick E, Bourke B, Drumm B, et al: Outcome for children with cyclical vomiting syndrome, Arch Dis Child 92:1001Ц1004, 2007
  16. Franchini M, Mannucci PM: Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and bleeding in von Willebrand disease, Thromb Haemost 112:427Ц431, 2014
  17. Gasiorowska A, Faas R: Current approach to dysphagia, Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:269Ц279, 2009
  18. Golden CB, Feusner JH: Malignant abdominal masses in children: quick guide to evaluation and diagnosis, Pediatr Clin North Am 49:1369Ц1392, 2002
  19. Hasosah MY, Abdul-Wahab AA, Bin-Yahab SA, et al: Blue rubber bled nevus syndrome: extensive small bowel vascular lesions responsible for gastrointestinal bleeding, J Paediatr Child Health 46:63Ц65, 2010
  20. Kirkham SE, Lindley KJ, Elawad MA, et al: Treatment of multiple small bowel angiodysplasias causing severe life-threatening bleeding with thalidomide, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42(5):585Ц587, 2006
  21. Koppen IJ, Nurko S, Saps M, et al: The Pediatric Rome IV criteria: whatТs new? Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11(3):193Ц201, 2017
  22. Li BU, Misiewicz L: Cylic vomiting syndrome: a brain-gut disorder, Gastroenterol Clin North Am 32:997Ц1019, 2003
  23. Mulvaney S, Lombert EW, Garber J, et al: Trajectories of symptoms and impairment for pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:737Ц744, 2006
  24. Nurko S, Rosen R, Furuta GT: Esophageal dysmotility in children with eosinophilic esophagitis: a study using prolonged esophageal manometry, Am J Gastroenterol 104(12):3050Ц3057, 2009 doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.543. [Epub 2009 Sep 15].
  25. Parashette KR, Croffie J: Vomiting, Pediatr Rev 34:307Ц320, 2013
  26. Pennazlo M: Small-intestinal pathology on capsule endoscopy: spectrum of vascular lesions, Endoscopy 37:864Ц869, 2005
  27. Pfau BT, Li BUK, Murray RD, et al: Differentiating cyclic from chronic vomiting patterns in children: quantitative criteria and diagnostic implications, Pediatrics 97:364Ц368, 1996
  28. Rasquin A, Di Lorenzo C, Forbes D, et al: Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: child/adolescent, Gastroenterology 130:1527Ц1537, 2006
  29. Rome Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: home page (website).
  30. Rubin G: Constipation in children, Clin Evid 10:369Ц374, 2003
  31. Sami SS, Al-Araji SA, Ragunath K: Review article: gastrointestinal angiodysplasiaЧpathogenesis, diagnosis and management, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 39:15Ц34, 2014
  32. Siawash M, de Jager-Kievit JWA, Ten WTA, et al: Prevalence of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in a pediatric population with chronic abdominal pain, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 62(3):399Ц402, 2016
  33. Strate LL, Gralnek IM: ACG clinical guideline: management of patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, Am J Gastroenterol 111(4):459Ц474, 2016
  34. The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition: Consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of cyclical vomiting, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:379Ц393, 2008
  35. Dummett CO, Thikkurissy S: Anomalies of the developing dentition IN pediatric dentistry: infancy through adolescence, ed 5, St. Louis, 2013, Elsevier/Saunders, pp 54Ц64.Food and Drug Administration/FDA News Release: FDA confirms elevated levels of belladonna in certain homeopathic teething products.
  36. Food and Drug Administration/FDA News Release: FDA warns against the use of homeopathic teething tablets and gels.
  37. Massignan C, Cardoso M, Porporatti AL, et al: Signs and symptoms of primary tooth eruption: a meta-analysis, Pediatrics 137(3):e20153501, 2016.
  38. Tinanoff N: Use of fluoride. In Berg J, Slayton R, editors: Early childhood oral health, Ames, Iowa, 2009, Wiley-Blackwell, pp 92Ц109.
  39. Berg E, Haaland OA, Feragen KB, et al: Health status among adults born with an oral cleft in Norway, JAMA Pediatr 170(11):1063Ц1070, 2016.
  40. Kasten EF, Schmidt SP, Zickler CF, et al: Team care of the patient with cleft lip and palate, Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 38:133Ц164, 2008.
  41. Lam DJ, Chiu LL, Sie KCY, et al: Impact of cleft width in clefts of secondary palate on the risk of velopharyngeal insufficiency, Arch Facial Plast Surg 14:360Ц364, 2012.
  42. Mossey PA, Little J, Munger RG, et al: Cleft lip and palate, Lancet 374:1773Ц1782, 2009.
  43. Rittler M, Lopez-Camelo JS, Castilla EE, et al: Preferential associations between oral clefts and other major congenital anomalies, Cleft Palate Craniofac J 45:525Ц532, 2008
  44. Buchenau W, Urschitz MS, Sautermeister J, et al: A randomized clinical trial of a new orthodontic appliance to improve upper airway obstruction in infants with pierre robin sequence, J Pediatr 151:145Ц149, 2007.
  45. Chang CC, Steinbacker DM: Treacher collins syndrome, Semin Plast Surg 26:83Ц90, 2012.
  46. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guideline on fluoride therapy, Pediatr Dent 38:181Ц184, 2016\2017.
  47. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): classification, consequences, and preventive strategies, Pediatr Dent 38:52Ц54, 2016\2017.
  48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking waterЧUnited States, 1992Ц2006, MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP 57(27):737Ц740, 2008.
  49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prevalence of untreated dental caries in permanent teeth among children and adolescents aged 6-19 years, by age groupЧnational health and nutrition examination survey, United States, 2011-2014, MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP 66(1):36, 2017.
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prevalence of untreated dental caries in primary teeth among children aged 2-8 years, by age group and race/hispanic originЧnational health and nutrition examination survey, 2011-2014, MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP 66(9):261, 2017.
  51. Clark MB, Slayton RL: AAP section on oral health: fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting, Pediatrics 134:626Ц633, 2014.
  52. Dye BA, Thornton-Evans G, Li X, Iafolla TJ: Dental caries and sealant prevalence in children and adolescence in the United States, 2011-2012. In NCHS data brief no 191, Hyattsville, MD, 2015, National Center for Health Statistics. As accessed on October 3, 2016
  53. Dye BA, Thornton-Evans G, Li X: Oral health disparities as determined by selected healthy people 20202 oral health objectives for United States, 2009-2010. In NCHS data brief no 104, Hyattsville, MD, 2012, National Center for Health Statistics. As accessed on December 28, 2016
  54. Griffin SO, Wei L, Gooch BF, et al: Vital signs: dental sealant use and untreated tooth decay among U.S. school-aged children, MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP 65(41):1141Ц1145, 2016.
  55. Krol DM, Segura A, Boulter S, et al: Maintaining and improving the oral health of young children, Pediatrics 134:1224Ц1229, 2014.
  56. Moyer VA, US Preventive Services Task Force: Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US preventive services task force recommendation statement, Pediatrics 133:1102Ц1111, 2014.
  57. Peres KG, Nascimento GG, Peres MA, et al: Impact of prolonged breastfeeding on dental caries: a population-based birth cohort study, Pediatrics 140(1):e20162943, 2017.
  58. Robertson DP, Keys W, Rautemaa-Richardson R, et al: Management of severe acute dental infections, BMJ 350:h1300, 2015.
  59. Ryan P, McMahon G: Severe dental infections in the emergency department, Eur J Emerg Med 19:208Ц213, 2012.
  60. Tinanoff N: Use of fluoride. In Berg J, Slayton R, editors: Early childhood oral health, Ames, IA, 2009, Wiley-Blackwell, pp 92Ц109.
  61. Warnke PH, Becker ST, Springer ING, et al: Penicillin compared with other advanced broad-spectrum antibiotics regarding antibacterial activity against oral pathogens isolated from odontogenic abscesses, J Craniomaxillofac Surg 36:462Ц467, 2008.
  62. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guidelines on periodontal diseases of children and adolescents, Pediatr Dent 38:388Ц396, 2016\2017.
  63. Pihlstrom BL, Fine DH: Aggressive periodontitis in adolescents in Morocco, Lancet 371:188Ц189, 2008
  64. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guidelines on management of acute dental trauma, Pediatr Dent 33:230Ц238, 2012\2013
  65. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guidelines on management of traumatic dental injuries. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth, Pediatr Dent 38:359Ц368, 2016\2017
  66. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guidelines on management of traumatic dental injuries. Avulsion of permanent teeth, Pediatr Dent 38:369Ц376, 2016\2017
  67. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual: Guidelines on management of traumatic dental injuries. Injuries to primary dentition, Pediatr Dent 38:377Ц385, 2016\2017.
  68. Emond A, Ingram J, Johnson D, et al: Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild-moderate tongue-tie, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed (3):F189ЦF195, 2014.
  69. Garkan A, Altiaylik-?zer P, et al: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis in childhood and adolescence: a single-center experience, Pediatr Dermatol 32(4):476Ц480, 2015.
  70. Barskey AE, Juieng P, Whitaker BL, et al: Viruses detected among sporadic cases of parotitis, United States, 2009Ц2011, JID 208:1979Ц1986, 2013.
  71. Mehanna H, McQueen A, Robinson M, et al: Salivary gland swelling, BMJ 345:36Ц41, 2012.
  72. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Dental Cone-beam Computed Tomography.
  73. Kahrilas PJ, Sifrim D: High-resolution manometry and impedance-pH/manometry: valuable tools in clinical and investigational esophagology, Gastroenterology 135:756Ц769, 2008.
  74. Ravi K, Francis DL: New technologies to evaluate esophageal function, Expert Rev Med Devices 4:829Ц837, 2007.
  75. Van Wijk MP, Benninga MA, Omari TI: Role of the multichannel intraluminal impedance technique in infants and children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48:2Ц12, 2009.
  76. Willging JP, Thompson DM: Pediatric FEEST: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 7:240Ц243, 2005.
  77. Knigge M, Thibeault S, McCulloch T: Implementation of High-resolution manometry in the clinical practice of speech language pathology, Dysphagia 29(1):2Ц16, 2014.
  78. Achildi O, Grewal H: Congenital anomalies of the esophagus, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 40:219Ц244, 2007.
  79. Brookes JT, Smith MC, Smith RJH, et al: H-type congenital tracheoesophageal fistula: university of iowa experience 1985-2005, Ann Otolo Rhinol Laryngol 116(5):363Ц368, 2007.
  80. Burge DM, Shah K, Spark P, et al: Contemporary management and outcomes for infants born with oesophageal atresia, Br J Surg 100:515Ц521, 2013.
  81. Castilloux J, Noble AJ, Faure C: Risk factors for short- and long-term morbidity in children with esophageal atresia, J Pediatr 156:755Ц760, 2010.
  82. Keckler SJ, St Peter SD, Valusek PA, et al: VACTERL anomalies in patients with esophageal atresia: an updated delineation of the spectrum and review of the literature, Pediatr Surg Int 23:309Ц313, 2007.
  83. Singh A, Middlesworth W: Khlevner J, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 19:4, 2017.
  84. Smith N: Oesophageal atresia and trachea-oesophageal fistula, Early Hum Dev 90:947Ц950, 2014.
  85. Owusu JA, Sidman JD, Anderson GF: Type IV laryngotracheoesophageal cleft: report of long term survivor successfully decannulated, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 75(9):1207Ц1209, 2011.
  86. Amae S, Nio M, Kamiyama T, et al: Clinical characteristics and management of congenital esophageal stenosis: a report on 14 cases, J Pediatr Surg 38:565Ц570, 2003.
  87. Michaud L, Coutenier F, Podevin G: Characteristics and management of congenital esophageal stenosis: findings from a multicenter study, Orphanet J Rare Dis 8:186, 2013.
  88. Serrao E, Santos A, Gaivao A: Congenital esophageal stenosis: a rare case of dysphagia, J Radiol Case Rep 4(6):8Ц14, 2010.
  89. Erdeve O, Kologlu M, Atasay B, et al: Primary cricopharyngeal achalasia in a newborn treated by balloon dilatation, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71:165Ц168, 2007.
  90. Marlais M, Fishman JR, Fell JME, et al: UK incidence of achalasia: an 11-year national epidemiological study, Arch Dis Child 96:192Ц194, 2011.
  91. Mishra A, Wang M, Pemmaraju VR, et al: Esophageal remodeling develops as a consequence of tissue specific IL-5Цinduced eosinophilia, Gastroenterology 134:204Ц214, 2008.
  92. Nazem M, Amouee AB, Eidy M, et al: Duplication of cervical oesophagus: a case report and review of the literature, Afr J Paediatr Surg 7(3):203Ц205, 2010.
  93. Straumann A, Aceves SS, Blanchard C, et al: Pediatric and adult eosinophilic esophagitis, Allergy 67(4):477Ц490, 2012.
  94. Boeckxstaens GE, Zuninotto G, Richter JE: Achalasia, Lancet 383:83Ц93, 2014.
  95. Chun R, Sitton M, Tipnis NA, et al: Endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy for management of cricopharyngeal achalasia in an 18 month old child, Laryngoscope 123(3):797Ц800, 2013.
  96. Goyal & Shaker, GI Motility Online. Orenstein SR: Oral, pharyngeal and esophageal motor disorders in infants and children.
  97. Hallal C, Kieling CO, Nunes DL, et al: Diagnosis, misdiagnosis, and associated diseases of achalasia in children and adolescents: a twelve-year single center experience, Pediatr Surg Int 28(12):1211Ц1217, 2012.
  98. Nabi Z, Ramchandani M, Reddy DN: Per oral endoscopic myotomy in children with achalasia cardia, Neurogastroenterol Motil 22(4):613Ц619, 2016.
  99. Rohof WO, Salvador R, Annese V: Outcomes of treatment for achalasia depend on manometric subtype, Gastroenterology 144(4):718Ц725, 2013
  100. Beal J, Silverman B, Bellant J, et al: Late onset necrotizing enterocolitis in infants following use of a xanthan gum-containing thickening agent, J Pediatr 161(2):354Ц356, 2012.
  101. Bredenoord AJ, Pandolfino JE, Smout AJPM: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, Lancet 381:1933Ц1940, 2013.
  102. Campanozzi A, Boccia G, Pensabene L, et al: Prevalence and natural history of gastroesophageal reflux: pediatric prospective survey, Pediatrics 123:779Ц783, 2009.
  103. Chang AB, Lasscrson TJ, Gaffney J: Gastro-oesophageal reflux treatment for prolonged non-specific cough in children and adults (review), Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD004823, 2011.
  104. Epstein D, Bojke L, Sculpher MJ, et al: Laparoscopic fundoplication compared with medical management for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: cost-effectiveness study, BMJ 339:152Ц155, 2009.
  105. Eusebi LH, Rabitti S, Artesiani ML, et al: Proton pump inhibitors: risks of long-term use, J Gastroenterol Hepatol 32(7):1295Ц1302, 2017.
  106. Forbes D, Lim A, Ravikumara M: Gastroesophageal reflux in the 21st century, Curr Opin Pediatr 25:597Ц603, 2013.
  107. Grant AM, Cotton SC, Boachie C, et al: Minimal access surgery compared with medical management for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: five-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (REFLUX), BMJ 346:12, 2013.
  108. Jackon H, Kane T: Surgical management of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastroenterol Res Pract 2013:863527, 2013. [Epub 2013 May 9].
  109. Jadcherla SR, Hogan WJ, Shaker R: Physiology and Pathophysiology of glottic reflexes and pulmonary aspiration: from newborns to adults, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 31:554Ц560, 2010.
  110. Karagas MR, Punshon T, Sayarath V, et al: Association of rice and rice-product consumption with arsenic exposure early in life, JAMA Pediatr 170(6):609Ц616, 2016.
  111. Katz PO, Gerson LB, Vela MF: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, Am J Gastroenterol 108:308Ц328, 2013.
  112. Kwok TC, Ojha S, Dorling J: Feed thickener for infants up to six months of age with gastroesophageal reflux (review), Cochrane Database System Rev 12:CD003211, 2017.
  113. Lightdale JR, Gremse DA, section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition: Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician, Pediatrics 131(5):e1684, 2013.
  114. Lyon J: Study questions use of acid suppressors to curb mild infant reflux, JAMA 318(15):1427Ц1428, 2017.
  115. Orenstein SR, Hassall E, Furmagae-Jablonska W, et al: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole in infants with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, J Pediatr 154:514Ц520, 2009.
  116. Orenstein SR, Shalaby TM, Kelsey SF, et al: Natural history of infant reflux esophagitis: symptoms and morphometric histology during one year without pharmacotherapy, Am J Gastroenterol 101:628Ц640, 2006.
  117. Srivastava R, Berry JG, Hall M, et al: Reflux related hospital admissions after fundoplication in children with neurological impairment: retrospective cohort study, BMJ 340:b4411, 2010.
  118. The Medical Letter: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Med Lett 60:9Ц16, 2018.
  119. Thompson M, Antao B, Hall S, et al: Medium term outcome of endoluminal gastroplication with the EndoCinch device in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46:172Ц177, 2008.
  120. Tjon JA, Pe M, Soscia J, et al: Efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors in the management of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, Pharmacotherapy 33(9):956Ц971, 2013.
  121. Wakeman DS, Wilson NA, Warner BW: Current status of surgical management of gastroesophageal reflux in children, Curr Opin Pediatr 28:356Ц362, 2016.
  122. Ali Mel-S: Laryngopharyngeal reflux: diagnosis and treatment of a controversial disease, Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:28Ц33, 2008.
  123. El-Serag HB, Gilger MA, Shub MD, et al: The prevalence of suspected BarrettТs esophagus in children and adolescents: a multicenter endoscopic study, Gastrointest Endosc 64:671Ц675, 2006.
  124. Gilger MA, El-Serag HB, Gold BD, et al: Prevalence of endoscopic findings of erosive esophagitis in children: a population based study, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:141Ц146, 2008.
  125. Havemann BD, Henderson CAA, El-Serag HB: The relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and asthma; a systematic review, Gut 56:1654Ц1664, 2007.
  126. Nguyen DM, El-Serag HB, Shub M, et al: BarrettТs esophagus in children and adolescents without neurodevelopmental or tracheoesophageal abnormalities: a prospective study, Gastrointest Endosc 73(5):875Ц880, 2011.
  127. Shaheen NJ, Richter JE: BarrettТs oesophagus, Lancet 373:850Ц858, 2009.
  128. Shaheen NJ, Sharma P, Overholt BF, et al: Radiofrequency ablation in BarrettТs esophagus with dysplasia, N Engl J Med 360:2277Ц2288, 2009.
  129. Slocum C, Hibbs AM, Martin RJ, et al: Infant apnea and gastroesophageal reflux: a critical review and framework for further investigation, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 9:219Ц224, 2007.
  130. Smits MJ, van Wilk MP et al: Association between gastroesophageal reflux and pathologic apneas in infants: a systematic review, Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 26(11),1527-38, 2016.
  131. Thakkar K, Boatright RO, Gilger MA, et al: Gastroesophageal reflux in children with asthma: a systematic review, Pediatrics 125(4):925Ц930, 2010.
  132. Tolia V, Vandenplas Y: Systematic review: the extra-oesophageal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29:258Ц272, 2009.
  133. Vaezi MF: Laryngeal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 10:271Ц277, 2008.
  134. Valusek PA, St Peter SD, Tsao K, et al: The use of fundoplication for prevention of apparent life-threatening events, J Pediatr Surg 42:1022Ц1024, 2007.
  135. Abid S, Mumtaz K, Jafri W, et al: Pill induced esophagitis: endoscopic features and clinical outcomes, Endoscopy 37:740Ц744, 2005.
  136. Alexander ES, Martin LJ, Collins MH, et al: Twin and family studies reveal strong environmental and weaker genetic cues explaining heritability of eosinophilic esophagitis, J Allergy Clin Immunol 134(5):1084Ц1092, 2014.
  137. Canalejo E, Duran FG, Cabello N, et al: Herpes esophagitis in healthy adults and adolescents, Medicine (Baltimore) 89(4):204Ц210, 2010.
  138. Dellon ES, Liacouras CA, Molina-Infante J, et al: Updated International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Proceedings of the AGREE Conference, Gastroenterology 155(4):1022Ц1033, 2018.
  139. Franciosi JP, Liacouras CA: Eosinophilic esophagitis, Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 29:19Ц27, 2009.
  140. Golekoh MC, Hornung LN, Mukkada VA, et al: Adrenal insufficiency after chronic swallowed glucocorticoid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis, J Pediatr 170:240Ц245, 2016.
  141. Hill CA, Ramakrishna J, Fracchia S, et al: Prevalence of eosinophillic esophagitis in children with refractory aerodigestive symptoms, JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139:903Ц906, 2013.
  142. Kliemann DA, Pasqualotto AC, Falavigna M, et al: Candida esophagitis: species distribution and risk factors for infection, Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50:261Ц263, 2008.
  143. Lee B, Caddy G: A rare cause of dysphagia: herpes simplex esophagitis, World J Gastroenterol 13:2756Ц2757, 2007.
  144. Lee JJ, Baker RD, Khan AR, et al: Childhood esophagitis: then and now, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48:37Ц40, 2009.
  145. Liacouras CA, Furuta GT, Hirano I, et al: Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults, J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(1):3Ц20, 2011.
  146. Maguire A, Sheahan K: Pathology of oesophagitis, Histopathology 60:864Ц879, 2012.
  147. Molina-Infante J, Gonzalez-Cordero PL, Lucendo AJ: Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal esoinophila, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 33:2017. (epub).
  148. Oyoshi MK: Recent research advances in eosinophilic esophagitis, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:741Ц747, 2015.
  149. Patel NC, Caicedo RA: Esophageal infections: an update, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:642Ц648, 2015.
  150. Pentiuk S, Putnam PE, Collinc MH, et al: Dissociation between symptoms and histological severity in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48:152Ц160, 2009.
  151. Schoepfer AM, Safroneeva E, Bussmann C, et al: Delay in diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis increases risk for stricture formation in a time dependent manner, Gastroenterology 145:1230Ц1236, 2013.
  152. Straumann A, Schoepfer AM: Therapeutic concepts in adult and pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 9(12):697Ц704, 2012.
  153. Vashi R, Hirano I: Diet therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis: when, why and how, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 29(4):407Ц415, 2013.
  154. Zezos P, Harel Z, Saibil F Cloxacillin: a new cause of pill esophagitis, Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Article ID 2904256: 2 pages, 2016.
  155. Blencowe NS, Strong S, Hollowood AD: Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, BMJ 346:38Ц39, 2013.
  156. Gander JW, Berdon WE, Cowles RA: Iatrogenic esophageal perforation in children, Pediatr Surg Int 25:395Ц401, 2009.
  157. Osborn HA, Papsin BC: Acute onset of retrosternal and epigastric pain, JAMA 309:823Ц824, 2013.
  158. Robles-Medranda C, Villard F, Bouvier R, et al: Spontaneous esophageal perforation in eosinophilic esophagitis in children, Endoscopy 40(Suppl 2):E171, 2008.
  159. Saxena P, Khashab MA: Endoscopic management of esophageal perforations: who, when, and how?, Curr Treat Options Gastro 15(1):35Ц45, 2017
  160. Cardenas A, Gines P: Portal hypertension, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:195Ц201, 2009.
  161. Ling SC: Advances in the evaluation and management of children with portal hypertension, Semin Liver Dis 32:288Ц297, 2012.
  162. Shneider BL, de Ville de Goyet J, Leung DH, et al: Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in children and the role of MesoRex bypass: summary of the Baveno VI pediatric satellite symposium, Hepatology 63:1368Ц1380, 2016
  163. Kramer RE, Lerner DG, Lin T, et al: Management of ingested foreign bodies in children: a clinical report of the NASPGHAN endoscopy committee, JPGN 60:562Ц574, 2015.
  164. Triadafilopoulos G, Roorda A, Akiyama J: Update on foreign bodies in the esophagus: diagnosis and management, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 15:317, 2013
  165. Chirica M, Bonavina L, Kelly MD, et al: Caustic ingestion, Lancet 389:2041Ц2050, 2017.
  166. Contini S, Garatti M, Swarray-Deen A, et al: Corrosive esophageal strictures in children: outcomes after timely or delayed dilatation, Dig Liver Dis 41:263Ц268, 2009.
  167. Elshabrawi M, A-Kader HH: Caustic ingestion in children, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 5(5):637Ц645, 2011.
  168. Ikenberry SO, Jue TL, Anderson MA, et al: Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impaction, Gastrointest Endoscopy 73(6):1085Ц1091, 2011.
  169. Johnson CM, Brigger MT: The public health impact of pediatric caustic ingestion injuries, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 138(12):1111Ц1115, 2012.
  170. Kramer RE, Lerner DG, Lin T, et al: Management of ingested foreign bodies in children: a clinical report of the NASPGHAN endoscopy committee, JPGN 60(4):562Ц574, 2015.
  171. Leinwand K, Brumbaugh DE, Kramer RE: Button battery ingestion in childrenЧa paradigm for management of severe pediatric foreign body ingestions, Gastrointest Endoscopy Clin N Am 26:99Ц118, 2016.
  172. Lu LS, Tai WC, Hu ML, et al: Predicting the progress of caustic injury to complicated gastric outlet obstruction and esophageal stricture, using modified endoscopic mucosal injury grading scale, Biomed Res Int 6:2014. Article ID 919870.
  173. Shub MD: Therapy of caustic ingestion: new treatment considerations, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:609Ц613, 2015.
  174. Usta M, Erkan T, Cokugras FC, et al: High doses of methylprednisolone in the management of caustic esophageal burns, Pediatrics 133:e1518Цe1524, 2014.
  175. Chirica M, Bonavina L, Kelly MD, et al: Caustic ingestion, Lancet 389:2041Ц2050, 2017.
  176. Contini S, Garatti M, Swarray-Deen A, et al: Corrosive esophageal strictures in children: outcomes after timely or delayed dilatation, Dig Liver Dis 41:263Ц268, 2009.
  177. Elshabrawi M, A-Kader HH: Caustic ingestion in children, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 5(5):637Ц645, 2011.
  178. Ikenberry SO, Jue TL, Anderson MA, et al: Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impaction, Gastrointest Endoscopy 73(6):1085Ц1091, 2011.
  179. Johnson CM, Brigger MT: The public health impact of pediatric caustic ingestion injuries, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 138(12):1111Ц1115, 2012.
  180. Kramer RE, Lerner DG, Lin T, et al: Management of ingested foreign bodies in children: a clinical report of the NASPGHAN endoscopy committee, JPGN 60(4):562Ц574, 2015.
  181. Leinwand K, Brumbaugh DE, Kramer RE: Button battery ingestion in childrenЧa paradigm for management of severe pediatric foreign body ingestions, Gastrointest Endoscopy Clin N Am 26:99Ц118, 2016.
  182. Lu LS, Tai WC, Hu ML, et al: Predicting the progress of caustic injury to complicated gastric outlet obstruction and esophageal stricture, using modified endoscopic mucosal injury grading scale, Biomed Res Int 6:2014. Article ID 919870.
  183. Shub MD: Therapy of caustic ingestion: new treatment considerations, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:609Ц613, 2015.
  184. Usta M, Erkan T, Cokugras FC, et al: High doses of methylprednisolone in the management of caustic esophageal burns, Pediatrics 133: e1518Цe1524, 2014.
  185. Chung E: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: genes and environment, Arch Dis Child 93:1003, 2008
  186. Kawahara H, Imura K, Nishikawa M, et al: Intravenous atropine treatment in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Arch Dis Child 87(1):71Ц74, 2002.
  187. Kawahara H, Takama Y, Yoshida H, et al: Medical treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: should we always slice the УoliveФ?, J Pediatr Surg 40:2005, 1848.
  188. Singh UK, Kumar R, Prasad R: Oral atropine sulfate for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Indian Pediatr 42:473, 2005
  189. Sorensen HT, Skriver MV, Pedersen L, et al: Risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after maternal postnatal use of macrolides, Scand J Infect Dis 35:104, 2003.
  190. To T, Wajja A, Wales PW, et al: Population demographic indicators associated with incidence of pyloric stenosis, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:520, 2005.
  191. Yagmurlu A: Laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomy, Lancet 373:358Ц360, 2009.
  192. Bonacci JL, Schlatter MG: Gastric duplication cyst: a unique presentation, J Pediatr Surg 43:1203Ц1205, 2008
  193. Hur J, Yoon CS, Kim MJ, et al: Imaging features of gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants and children: from oesophagus to rectum, Pediatr Radiol 37:691Ц699, 2007.
  194. Cribbs RK, Gow KW, Wulkan ML: Gastric volvulus in infants and children, Pediatrics 122:e752Цe762, 2008.
  195. Graham-Maar RC, Russo P, Johnson AM, et al: A 2-year-old boy with emesis and facial edema, Medgenmed 8:75, 2006
  196. Hoffer V, Finkelstein Y, Balter J, et al: Ganciclovir treatment in M?n?trierТs disease, Acta Paediatr 92:983Ц985, 2003
  197. Megged O, Schlesinger Y: Cytomegalovirus-associated protein-losing gastropathy in childhood, Eur J Pediatr 167:1217Ц1220, 2008
  198. Tokuhara D, Okano Y, Asou K, et al: Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection in a child with M?n?trier disease, Eur J Pediatr 166:63Ц65, 2007.
  199. Basu R, Burge DM: The effect of antenatal diagnosis on the management of small bowel atresia, Pediatr Surg Int 20:177Ц179, 2004.
  200. Bittencourt DG, Barini R, Marba S, et al: Congenital duodenal obstruction: does prenatal diagnosis improve the outcome?, Pediatr Surg Int 20:582Ц585, 2004.
  201. Dalla Vecchia LK, Grosfeld JL, West KW, et al: Intestinal atresia and stenosis: a 25 year experience with 277 cases, Arch Surg 133:490Ц497, 1998.
  202. De la Hunt MN: The acute abdomen in the newborn, Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 11:191Ц197, 2006.
  203. Escobar MA, Ladd AP, Grosfeld JL, et al: Duodenal atresia and stenosis: Long-term follow-up over 30 years, J Pediatr Surg 39:867Ц871, 2004.
  204. Kumaran N, Shankar KR, Lloyd DA, et al: Trends in the management and outcome of jejuno-ileal atresia, Eur J Pediatr Surg 12:163Ц167, 2002.
  205. Werler MM, Sheehan JE, Mitchell AA: Association of vasoconstrictive exposures with risks of gastroschisis and small intestinal atresia, Epidemiology 14:349Ц354, 2003.
  206. — Draus JM Jr, Foley DS, Bond SJ: Laparoscopic ladd procedure: a minimally invasive approach to malrotation without midgut volvulus, Am Surg 73(7):693Ц696, 2007.
  207. Forrester MB, Merz RD: Population-based study of small intestinal atresia and stenosis, Hawaii, 1986Ц2000, Public Health 118:434Ц438, 2004.
  208. Khen N, Jaubert F, Sauvat F, et al: Fetal intestinal obstruction induces alteration of enteric nervous system development in human intestinal atresia, Pediatr Res 56:975Ц980, 2004.
  209. Kumar N, Curry JI: Bile-stained vomiting in the infant: green is not good!, Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 93:84Ц86, 2008.
  210. Lampl B, Levin TL, Berdon WE, et al: Malrotation and midgut volvulus: a historical review and current controversies in diagnosis and management, Pediatr Radiol 39(4):359Ц366, 2009.
  211. Lee HC, Pickard SS, Sridhar S, et al: Intestinal malrotation and catastrophic volvulus in infancy, J Emerg Med 43(1):e49Цe51, 2012.
  212. Mehall JR, Chandler JC, Mehall RL, et al: Management of typical and atypical intestinal malrotation, J Pediatr Surg 37:1169Ц1172, 2002.
  213. Millar AJ, Rode H, Cywes S: Malrotation and volvulus in infancy and childhood, Semin Pediatr Surg 12:229Ц236, 2003.
  214. Pickhardt PJ, Bhalla S: Intestinal malrotation in adolescents and adults: spectrum of clinical and imaging features, AJR Am J Roentgenol 179:1429Ц1435, 2002.
  215. Williams H: Green for danger! Intestinal malrotation and volvulus, Arch Dis Child 92:ep87Цep91, 2007.
  216. Yu DC, Thiagarajan RR, Laussen PC, et al: Outcomes after the ladd procedure in patients with heterotaxy syndrome, congenital heart disease, and intestinal malrotation, J Pediatr Surg 44(6):1089Ц1095, 2009.
  217. Augestad KM, Dehli T, Thuy L, et al: A littre bleed, Lancet 380:1030, 2012.
  218. He Q, Zhang Y, Xiao B, et al: Double-balloon enteroscopy for diagnosis of MeckelТs diverticulum: comparison with operative findings and capsule endoscopy, Surgery 153:549Ц554, 2013.
  219. Menezes M, Tareen F, Saeed A, et al: Symptomatic MeckelТs diverticulum in children: a 16-year review, Pediatr Surg Int 24:575Ц577, 2008.
  220. Onen A, Cigdem MK, Ozturk H, et al: When to resect and when not to resect and asymptomatic MeckelТs diverticulum: an ongoing challenge, Pediatr Surg Int 19:57Ц61, 2003.
  221. Pepper VK, Stanfill AB, Pearl RH: Diagnosis and management of pediatric appendicitis, intussusception, and meckel diverticulum, Surg Clin North Am 92(3):505Ц526, 2012.
  222. Uppal K: MeckelТs diverticulum: a review, Clin Anat 24(4):416Ц422, 2011.
  223. Chumpitazi B., Nurko S.: Pediatric gastrointestinal motility disorders: challenges and a clinical update, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 4(2):140Ц148, 2008.
  224. Cucchiara S, Borrelli O, Salvia G, et al: A normal gastrointestinal motility excludes chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in children, Dig Dis Sci 45:258Ц264, 2000.
  225. Di Nardo G, Blandizzi C., Volta U., et al: Review article: molecular, pathological and therapeutic features of human enteric neuropathies, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 28:25Ц42, 2008.
  226. Di Nardo G., Di Lorenzo C., Lauro A., et al: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in children and adults: diagnosis and therapeutic options, Neurogastroenterol Motil 29:12945, 2017.
  227. Faure C.: Chronic intestinal Pseudo-obstruction syndrome. In Walker WA, Goulet O: Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathohysiology, Diagnosis, Management, ed 4, 2004.
  228. Gabbard S., Lacy B.: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Nutr Clin Pract 28(3):307Ц316, 2013.
  229. Haas S., Bindl L., Fischer H.P.: Autoimmune enteric leiomyositis: a rare cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction with specific morphological features, Human Path 36:576Ц580, 2005.
  230. Kleinman R., et al, editors: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Hamilton, Ontario, 2004, BC Decker. pp1044Ц1054.
  231. Knowles C.H., Lindberg G., Panza E., De Giorgio R.: New perspectives in the diagnosis and management of enteric neuropathies, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:206Ц218, 2013.
  232. Lapointe S.P., Rivet C., Goulet O., et al: Urological manifestations associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstructions in children, J Urol 168:1768Ц1770, 2002.
  233. Mousa H., Hyman P.E., Cocjin J., et al: Long-term outcome of congenital intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Dig Dis Sci 47:2298Ц2305, 2002.
  234. Nurko S.: Motility disorders in children, Pediatr Clin N Am 64:593Ц612, 2017.
  235. Rahman S.: Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of mitochondrial disorders, J Inherit Metab Dis 36:659Ц673, 2013.
  236. Venkatasubramani N., Sood M.: Motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, Indian J Pediatr 73:927Ц930, 2006.
  237. Baris Z, Eminoolu T, Dalgi? B, et al: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalo≠myopathy (MNGIE): case report with a new mutation, Eur J Pediatr 169:1375Ц1378, 2010.
  238. DТAngelo R, Rinaldi R, Carelli V, et al: ITA-MNGIE: an Italian regional and national survey for mitochondrial neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalomyopathy, Neurol Sci 37:1149Ц1151, 2016.
  239. Garone C, Tadesse S, Hirano M: Clinical and genetic spectrum of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, Brain 134:3326Ц3332, 2011.
  240. Hirano M: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease. In Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, editors: GeneReviewsЃ [internet], Seattle (WA), 2005, University of Washington, Seattle, pp 1993Ц2018. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1179/.
  241. Sivadasan A, Muthusamy K, Kumar A, et al: Pearls and Oy-sters: mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, Neurology 86(14):e147Цe150, 2016.
  242. Tang S, Dimberg EL, Milone M, Wong LJC: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE)-like phenotype: an expanded clinical spectrum of POLG1 mutations, J Neurol 259:862Ц868, 2012
  243. Auth MKH, Vora R, Farrelly P, et al: Childhood constipation, BMJ 345:38Ц43, 2012.
  244. Bar-Maor JA, Eitan A: Determination of the normal position of the anus (with reference to idiopathic constipation), J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 6:559Ц561, 1987.
  245. Bekkali NLH, van den Berg MM, Dijkgraaf MGW, et al: Rectal fecal impaction treat≠ment in childhood constipation: enemas versus high doses oral PEG, Pediatrics 124:e1108Цe1115, 2009.
  246. Benninga MA, Faure C, Hyman PE, et al: Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: Neonate/toddler, Gastroenterology 150:1443Ц1455, 2016.
  247. Boners ME, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA: Functional nonretentive fecal incontinence in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 44:5Ц13, 2007.
  248. Burgers R, Levin AD, Di Lorenzo C, et al: Functional defecation disorders in children: comparing the rome II with the rome III criteria, J Pediatr 161:615Ц620, 2012.
  249. Camilleri M, Kerstens R, Rykx A, et al: A placebo-controlled trial of prucalopride for severe chronic constipation, N Engl J Med 358:2344Ц2354, 2008.
  250. Candy D, Belsey J: Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) laxatives in children with functional constipation and faecal impaction: a systematic review, Arch Dis Child 94:156Ц160, 2009.
  251. Carvalho RS, Michail SK, Ashai-Khan F, et al: An update in pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition: a review of some recent advances, Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 38:197Ц234, 2008.
  252. Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA: Response to a behavioral treatment, biofeedback, in constipated patients is associated with improved gut transit and autonomic innervation, Gut 49:214Ц219, 2001.
  253. Freedman SB, Rodean J, Hall M, et al: Delayed diagnosis in children with constipation: multicenter retrospective cohort study, J Pediatr 186:87Ц94, 2017.
  254. Gordon M, MacDonald JK, Parker CE, et al: Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation (review), Cochrane Database Syst Rev (8):CD009118, 2016.
  255. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al: Functional disorders: children and adolescents, Gastroenterology 150:1456Ц1468, 2016.
  256. Knowles CH, De Giorgio R, Kapur RP, et al: The London classification of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology: report on behalf of the gastro 2009 international working group, Gut 59:882Ц887, 2010.
  257. Koppen IJ, Nurko S, Saps M, et al: The pediatric rome IV criteria: whatТs new?, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11(3):193Ц201, 2017.
  258. Lu PL, Di Lorenzo C: Neurostimulation of the gastrointestinal tract in children: is it time to shock the gut?, Curr Opin Pediatr 28:631Ц637, 2016.
  259. Masi P, Miele E, Staiano A: Pediatric anorectal disorders, Gastroenterol Clin North Am 37:709Ц730, 2008.
  260. Pijpers M, Tabbers M, Benninga M, et al: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures, Arch Dis Child 94:117Ц131, 2009.
  261. Reid H, Bahar RJ: Treatment of encopresis and chronic constipation in young chil≠dren: clinical results from interactive parent-child guidance, Clin Pediatr (Phila) 45:157Ц164, 2006.
  262. Rodriguez L, Sood M, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M: An ANMS-NASPGHAN consensus document on anorectal and colonic manometry in children, Neurogastroenterol Motil 29:e12944, 2017.
  263. Rosen R, Buonomo C, Andrade R, et al: Incidence of spinal cord lesions in patients with intractable constipation, J Pediatr 145:409Ц411, 2004.
  264. Singhal A, Morley R, Abbott R, et al: Clinical safety of iron-fortified formulas, Pediatrics 105(3):E38, 2000.
  265. Stern T, Davis AM: Evaluation and treatment of patients with constipation, JAMA 315(2):192Ц193, 2016.
  266. The Medical Letter: Plecanatide (Trulance) for chronic idiopathic constipation, Med Lett 59(1519):66Ц68, 2017.
  267. Van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen ML, Bols EMJ, Benninga MA, et al: Effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy in children with functional constipation compared with standard medical care, Gastroenterology 152:82Ц91, 2017.
  268. Voskuijl WP, Reitsma JB, van Ginkel R, et al: Longitudinal follow-up of children with functional nonretentive fecal incontinence, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:67Ц72, 2006.
  269. Amiel J, Sproat-Emison E, Garcia-Barcelo M, et al: Hirschsprung disease, associated syndromes and genetics: a review, J Med Genet 45:1Ц14, 2008.
  270. Arshad A, Powell C, Tighe MP: HirschsprungТs disease, BMJ 345:47Ц49, 2012.
  271. Bonnard A, Zeidan S, Degas V, et al: Outcomes of HirschsprungТs disease associated with Mowat-wilson syndrome, J Pediatr Surg 44:587Ц591, 2009.
  272. Dasgupta R, Langer J: Evaluation and management of persistent problems after surgery for hirschsprung disease in a child, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46(1):13Ц19, 2008.
  273. Dasgupta R, Langer J: Hirschsprung disease, Curr Probl Surg 41:942Ц988, 2004.
  274. DeLorijn F, Reitsma JB, Voskuijl WP, et al: Diagnosis of HirschsprungТs disease: a prospective comparative accuracy study of common tests, J Pediatr 146:787Ц792, 2005.
  275. Friedmacher F, Puri P: Classification and diagnostic criteria of variants of HirschsprungТs disease, Pediatr Surg Int 29:855Ц872, 2013.
  276. Hackam D, Reblock K, Barksdale E: The influence of DownТs syndrome on the management and outcome of children with HirschsprungТs disease, J Pediatr Surg 38:946Ц949, 2003.
  277. Haricharan R, Georgeson K: Hirschsprung disease, Semin Pediatr Surg 17:266Ц275, 2008.
  278. Heuckeroth RO: Hirschsprung disease. In Faure C: Pediatric neuro≠gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal Motility and Functional Disorders in Children, Clinical Gastroenterology, New York, 2013, Springer Science + Business Media.
  279. Keshtgar AS, Ward HC, Clayden GS: Investigations for incontinence and constipation after surgery for HirschsprungТs disease in children, Pediatr Surg Int 19:4Ц8, 2003.
  280. Langer JC, Durrant AC, de la Torre L : One-stage transanal soave pull through for hirschsprung disease: a multicenter experience with 141 children, Ann Surg 238:569Ц583, discussion 583Ц585, 2003.
  281. Langer JC: Hirschsprung disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 25:368Ц374, 2013.
  282. Moore SW: Chromosomal and related mendelian syndromes associated with HirschsprungТs disease, Pediatr Surg Int 28:1045Ц1058, 2012.
  283. Morris M, Soglio D, Quimet A, et al: A study of calretinin in hirschsprung disease pathology, particularly total colonic hirschsprung disease, J Pediatr Surg 48(5):1037Ц1043, 2013.
  284. Ozyurek H, Kayacik OE, Gunger O: Rare association of HirschsprungТs disease and joubert syndrome, Eur J Pediatr 167:475Ц477, 2008.
  285. Pensabene L, Youssef NN, Griffiths JM, et al: Colonic manometry in children with defecatory disorders. Role in diagnosis and management, Am J Gastroenterol 98:1052Ц1057, 2003.
  286. Prato AP, Musso M, Ceccherini I, et al: Hirschsprung disease and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), Medicine (Baltimore) 88:83Ц90, 2009.
  287. Walker WA, Goulet O, Kleinman R: Pediatric gastrointestinal disease, ed 4, Hamilton, Ontario, 2004, BC Decker.
  288. Hutson J, McNamara J, Shin Y: Review article: slow transit constipation in children, J Paediatr Child Health 37:426Ц430, 2001.
  289. Kapur R: Neuropathology of paediatric chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and related animal models, J Pathol 194:277Ц288, 2001.
  290. Montedonico S, Acevedo S, Fadda B: Clinical aspects of intestinal neuronal dysplasia, J Pediatr Surg 37(12):1772Ц1774, 2002.
  291. Neuronal Intestinal Dysplasia. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Database. https://www.omim.org/entry/601223?search=intestinal%20neuronal%20dysplasia&highlight=neuronic%20dysplasia%20intestinal%20neuronal%20dysplastic. (Accessed 11 April 2017).
  292. Walker WA, Goulet O, Kleinman R, et al, editors: Pediatric gastrointestinal disease, ed 4, Hamilton, Ontario, 2004, BC Decker.
  293. Biank V, Werlin S: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in children: a 20-year experi≠ence, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42:522Ц525, 2006.
  294. Merrett ND, Wilson RB, Cosman P: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: diagnosis and treatment strategies, J Gastrointest Surg 13:287Ц292, 2009.
  295. Welsch T, B?chler MW, Kienle P: Recalling superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Dig Surg 24(3):149Ц156, 2007. [Epub 2007 Apr 27
  296. Vather R., Bissett I.: Management of prolonged post-operative ileus: evidence-based recommendations, ANZ J Surg 83:319Ц324, 2013.
  297. Grant HW, Parker MC, Wilson MS, et al: Adhesions after abdominal surgery in children, J Pediatr Surg 43:152Ц156, 2008
  298. Bajaj L, Roback MG: Post-reduction management of intussusception in a childrenТs hospital emergency department, Pediatrics 112:1302Ц1307, 2003
  299. Bines JE, Kohl KS, Forster J: Acute intussusception in infants and children as an adverse event following immunizations: case definition and guidelines of data collection, analysis, and presentation, Vaccine 22:569Ц574, 2004
  300. Bines JE, Liem NT, Justice FA, et al: Risk factors for intussusception in infants in Vietnam and Australia: adenovirus implicated, but not rotavirus, J Pediatr 149:452Ц460, 2006
  301. Bonnard A, Demarche M, Dimitriu C, et al: Indications for laparoscopy in the manage≠ment of intussusception. A multicenter retrospective study conducted by the French study group for pediatric laparoscopy (GECI), J Pediatr Surg 43:1249Ц1253, 2008
  302. Buettcher M, Baer G, Bonhoeffer J, et al: Three-year surveillance of intussusception in children in Switzerland, Pediatrics 120:473Ц480, 2007
  303. Burke MS, Ragi JM, Karamanoukian HL, et al: New strategies in nonoperative management of meconium ileus, J Pediatr Surg 37:760Ц764, 2002
  304. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Postmarketing monitoring of intus≠susception after Rota Teg vaccinationЧUnited States, February 1, 2006ЦFebruary 15, 2007, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56:218Ц222, 2007
  305. Crystal P, Hertzanu Y, Farber B, et al: Sonographically guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusception in children, J Clin Ultrasound 30:343Ц348, 2002
  306. Fischer TK, Bihrmann K, Perch M, et al: Intussusception in early childhood: a cohort study of 1.7 million children, Pediatrics 114:782Ц785, 2004
  307. Greenberg D, Givon-Lavi N, Newman N, et al: Intussusception in children in southern Israel: disparity between 2 populations, Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:236Ц240, 2008
  308. Haber P, Patel M, Pan Y, et al: Intussusception after rotavirus vaccines reported to US VAERS, 2006Ц2012, Pediatrics 131:1042Ц1049, 2013
  309. Henrikson S, Blane CE, Koujok K, et al: The effect of screening sonography on the positive rate of enemas for intussusception, Pediatr Radiol 33:190Ц193, 2003
  310. Henry MCW, Brever CK, Tashjian DB, et al: The appendix sign: a radiographic marker for irreducible intussusception, J Pediatr Surg 41:487Ц489, 2006
  311. Hughes UM, Connolly BL, Chait PG, Muraca S. Further report of small-bowel intus≠susceptions related to gastrojejunostomy tubes. Pediatr Radiol. 30(9):614-617, 2000
  312. Hui GC, Gerstle JT, Weinstein M, Connolly B. Small-bowel intussusception around a gastrojejunostomy tube resulting in ischemic necrosis of the intestine. Pediatr Radiol. 34(11):916-918, 2004
  313. Koumanidou C, Vakaki M, Pitsoulakis G, et al: Sonographic detection of lymph nodes in the intussusception of infants and young children: clinical evaluation and hydrostatic reduction, AJR Am J Roentgenol 178:445Ц450, 2002
  314. Krishna S, Prabhu R, Thangavelu S, Shenoy R. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception: an unusual complication of feeding jejunostomy. BMJ Case Rep 27:1-3, 2013
  315. Reilly NR, Aguilar KM, Green PH: Should intussusception in children prompt screening for celiac disease? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56(1):56Ц59, 2013
  316. Shaw D, Huddleston S, Beilman G. Anterograde intussusception following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case report and review of the literature. Obes Surg. 20(8):1191-1194, 2010
  317. Sorantin E, Lindbichler F: Management of intussusception, Eur Radiol 14:146Ц154, 2004
  318. Stolz LA, Kizza H, Little K, et al: Intussusception detected with ultrasound in a resource-limited setting, Lancet 381:2054, 2013
  319. Williams H: Imaging and intussusception, Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 93:30Ц36, 2008
  320. Hongo N, Mori H, Matsumoto S, et al: Internal hernias after abdominal surgeries: MDCT features, Abdom Imaging 36:349Ц362, 2011
  321. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee: Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impactions, Gastrointest Endosc 73:1085Ц1091, 2011.
  322. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 yearsЧUnited States, 1995Ц2010, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61:661Ц666, 2012.
  323. Cerri RW, Liacouras CA: Evaluation and management of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract, Pediatr Case Rev 3:150Ц156, 2003.
  324. Denney W, Ahmad N, Dillard B, et al: Children will eat the strangest things, a 10-year retrospective analysis of foreign body and caustic ingestions from a single academic center, Pediatr Emerg Care 28(8):731Ц734, 2012.
  325. Dutta S, Barzin A: Multiple magnet ingestion as a source of severe gastrointestinal complications requiring surgical intervention, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 162:123Ц125, 2008.
  326. Green SS: Ingested and aspirated foreign bodies, Pediatr Rev 36(10):430Ц437, 2015.
  327. Hussain SZ, Bousvaros A, Gilger M, et al: Management of ingested magnets in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 55(3):239Ц242, 2012.
  328. Karjoo M, Kader H: A novel technique for closing and removing an open safety pin from the stomach, Gastrointest Endosc 57:627Ц629, 2003.
  329. Litovitz T, Whitaker N, Marsolek M, et al: Emerging battery-ingestion hazard: clinical implications, Pediatrics 125:1168, 2010.
  330. Mallon PT, White JS, Thompson RL: Systemic absorption of lithium following ingestion of a lithium button battery, Hum Exp Toxicol 23:193Ц195, 2004.
  331. Naji H, Isacson D, Svensson JF, et al: Bowel injuries caused by ingestion of multiple magnets in children: a growing hazard, Pediatr Surg Int 28(4):367Ц374, 2012.
  332. Puig S, Scharitzer M, Cengiz K, et al: Effects of gastric acid on euro coins: chemical reaction and radiographic appearance after ingestion by infants and children, Emerg Med J 21:553Ц556, 2004.
  333. Schalamon J, Haxhija EQ, Ainoedhofer H, et al: The use of a hand-held metal detector for localisation of ingested metallic foreign bodiesЧa critical investigation, Eur J Pediatr 163:257Ц259, 2004.
  334. VanArsdale JL, Leiker RD, Kohn M, et al: Lead poisoning from a toy necklace, Pediatrics 114:1096Ц1099, 2004.
  335. Zamora IJ, Vu LT, Larimer EL, et al: Water-absorbing balls: a УgrowingФ problem, Pediatrics 130:e1011Цe1014, 2012.
  336. Fallon S, Slater B, Lopez M, et al: The surgical management of rapunzel syndrome: a case series and a literature review, J Pediatr Surg 48(2):830Ц834, 2013.
  337. Kaneko H, Tomomasa T, Kubota Y, et al: Pharmacobezoar complicating treatment with sodium alginate, J Gastroenterol 39:69Ц71, 2004.
  338. Ladas SD, Kamberoglou D, Karamanolis G, et al: Systemic review: Coca-cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 37:169Ц173, 2013.
  339. Lynch KA, Feola PG, Guenther E: Gastric trichobezoar: an important cause of abdominal pain presenting to the pediatric emergency department, Pediatr Emerg Care 19(5):343Ц347, 2003.
  340. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Senthilkumar R, et al: Trichobezoars in the stomach and ileum and their laparoscopy-assisted removal: a bizarre case, Singapore Med J 48(2):e37Цe39, 2007.
  341. Purcell L, Gremse DA: Sunflower seed bezoar leading to fecal impaction, South Med J 88:87Ц88, 1995.
  342. Attard TM, Miller M, Pant C, Thomson M: Readmission after gastrointestinal bleeding in children: a retrospective cohort, J Pediatr 184:106Ц113, 2017.
  343. Braden B: Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, BMJ 344:44Ц46, 2012.
  344. Calvet X, Lario S, Ramierez-Lazaro M, et al: Comparative accuracy of 3 monoclonal stool tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with dyspepsia, Clin Infect Dis 50:323Ц328, 2010.
  345. Chan FKL: Proton-pump inhibitors in peptic ulcer disease, Lancet 372:1198Ц1200, 2008.
  346. Cheung KS, Chan EW, Wong AYS, et al: Long-term proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer development after treatment for Helicobacter pylori: a population-based study, Gut 67:28Ц35, 2018.
  347. Czinn SJ: Helicobacter pylori infection: detection, investigation, and management, J Pediatr 146:S21ЦS26, 2005.
  348. Federico A, Nardone G, Gravina AG, et al: Efficacy of 5-day levofloxacin-containing concomitant therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, Gastroenterology 143:55Ц61, 2012.
  349. Gatta L, Vakil N, Leandro G, et al: Sequential therapy or triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults and children, Am J Gastroenterol 104:3069Ц3079, 2009.
  350. Goncalves C, Oliveria ME, Palha AM, et al: Autoimmune gastritis presenting as iron deficiency anemia in childhood, World J Gastroenterol 20(42):15780Ц15786, 2014.
  351. Gralnek IM, Barkun AN, Bardou M: Management of acute bleeding from a peptic ulcer, N Engl J Med 359:928Ц936, 2008.
  352. Greenberg ER: Defining the role of sequential therapy for H. pylori infection, Lancet 381:180Ц182, 2012.
  353. Jafri NS, Hornung CA, Howden CW: Meta-analysis: sequential therapy appears superior to standard therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients na?ve to treatment, Ann Intern Med 148:923Ц931, 2008.
  354. Jones NL, Koletzko S, Goodman K, et al: Joint ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines for the management of helicobacter pylori in children and adolescents, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64(6):991Ц1003, 2017.
  355. Keser AG, Teksam O, Gulson HH, et al: Risk factors associated with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric ED, Am J Emerg Med 36(4):665Ц668, 2018.
  356. Laine L: Blood transfusion for gastrointestinal bleeding, N Engl J Med 368:75Ц76, 2013.
  357. Lanas A, Chan FKL: Peptic ulcer disease, Lancet 390:613Ц624, 2017.
  358. Lau JY, Leung WK, Wu JC, et al: Omeprazole before endoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, N Engl J Med 356(16):2007, 1631.
  359. Lau JYW, Barkun A, Fan D, et al: Challenges in the management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding, Lancet 381:2033Ц2042, 2013.
  360. Gibril F, Jensen RT: Zollinger-ellison syndrome revisited: diagnosis, biologic markers, associated inherited disorders, and acid hypersecretion, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 6:454Ц463, 2004.
  361. AGA Institute Medical Position Panel: AGA medical position statement on the diagnosis and management of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology 138:738Ц745, 2010.
  362. Agarwal S, Mayer L: Primary immunodeficiency: heeding suspicious gastrointestinal symptoms: diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with primary immunodeficiency, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:1050Ц1063, 2013.
  363. Alfadda AA, Storr MA, Shaffer EA: Eosinophilic colitis: an update on pathophysiology and treatment, Br Med Bull 100:59Ц72, 2011.
  364. Ananthakrishnan AN, Xavier RJ: How does genotype influence disease phenotype in inflammatory bowel disease?, Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:2021Ц2030, 2013.
  365. Anderson CA, Boucher G, Lees CW, et al: Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47, Nat Genet 43:246Ц252, 2011.
  366. Beaugerie L, Itzkowitz SH: Cancers complicating inflammatory bowel disease, N Engl J Med 372(15):1441Ц1452, 2015.
  367. Blaydon DC, Biancheri P, Di WL, et al: Inflammatory skin and bowel disease linked to ADAM17 deletion, N Engl J Med 365:1502Ц1508, 2013.
  368. Cannioto Z, Berti I, Martelossi S, et al: IBD and IBD mimicking enterocolitis in children younger than 2 years of age, Eur J Pediatr 168:149Ц155, 2009.
  369. Cleynen I, Boucher G, Jostins L, et al: Inherited determinants of CrohnТs disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study, Lancet 387:156Ц167, 2016.
  370. DiLauro S, Crum-Cianflone NF: Ileitis: when it is not CrohnТs disease, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 12:249Ц258, 2010.
  371. Dykes DMH, Saeed SA: Imaging for inflammatory bowel disease: the new Уsounding board, J Pediatr 163:625Ц626, 2013.
  372. El-Chammas K, Majeskie A, Simpson P, et al: Red flags in children with chronic abdominal pain and CrohnТs diseaseЧa single center experience, J Pediatr 162: 783Ц787, 2013.
  373. Ford AC, Moayyedi P, Hanauer SB: Ulcerative colitis, BMJ 346:29Ц34, 2013.
  374. Gionchetti P, Rizello F, Helwig U, et al: Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Gastroenterology 124:1202Ц1209, 2003.
  375. Huang JS, Noack D, Rae J, et al: Chronic granulomatous disease caused by a deficiency in p47phox mimicking CrohnТs disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:690Ц695, 2004.
  376. Hyams JS, Lerer T, Mack D: Outcome following thiopurine use in children with ulcerative colitis: a prospective multicenter registry study, Am J Gastroenterol 106:981Ц987, 2011.
  377. Jose FA, Heyman MB: Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46:124Ц133, 2008.
  378. Kelsen JR, Baldassano RN: The role of monogenic disease in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 29:566Ц571, 2017.
  379. Kruis W, Fric P, Pokrotnieks J, et al: Maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis with the probiotic Escherichia coli nissle 1917 is as effective as with standard mesalazine, Gut 53:1617Ц1623, 2004.
  380. Kugathasan S, Judd RH, Hoffmann RG, et al: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in wisconsin: a statewide population-based study, J Pediatr 143:525Ц531, 2003.
  381. Laharie D, Bourreille A, Branche J, et al: Ciclosporin versus infliximab in patients with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to intravenous steroids: a parallel, open-label randomized controlled trial, Lancet 380:1909Ц1914, 2012.
  382. Laharie D: Towards therapeutic choices in ulcerative colitis, Lancet 390:98Ц99, 2017.
  383. Lazzerini M, Bramuzzo M, Maschio M, et al: Thromboembolism in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: systematic review, Inflamm Bowel Dis 10:2174Ц2183, 2011.
  384. Leggieri N, Marques-Vidal P, Cerwenka H, et al: Migrated foreign body liver abscess, Medicine (Baltimore) 89(2):85Ц95, 2010.
  385. Levesque BG, Sandborn WJ: Infliximab versus ciclosporin in severe ulcerative colitis, Lancet 380:1887Ц1888, 2012.
  386. Maggi U, Rossi G, Avesani EC, et al: Thrombotic storm in a teenager with previously undiagnosed ulcerative colitis, Pediatrics 131:e1288Цe1291, 2013.
  387. Malaty HM, Fan X, Opekun AR, et al: Rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease among children: a 12-year study, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50(1):27Ц31, 2010.
  388. Mamula P, Markowitz JE, Baldassano RN, editors: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, ed 2, 2013, Springer Science of Business Media.
  389. Mamula P, Markowitz JE, Cohen LJ, et al: Infliximab in pediatric ulcerative colitis: two-year follow-up, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 38:298Ц301, 2004.
  390. Moayyedi P, Surette MG, Kim PT, et al: Fecal microbiota transplantation induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis in a randomized controlled trial, Gastroenterology 149:102Ц109, 2015.
  391. Negron ME, Rezaie A, Barkema HW, et al: Ulcerative colitis patients with clostridium difficile are at increased risk of death, colectomy, and postoperative complications: a population-based inception cohort study, Am J Gastroenterol 111:691Ц704, 2016.
  392. Ordos I, Eckmann L, Talamini M, et al: Ulcerative colitis, Lancet 380:1606Ц1616, 2012.
  393. Paramsothy S, Kamm MA, Kaakoush NO, et al: Multidonor intensive faecal microbiota transplantation for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial, Lancet 389:1218Ц1228, 2017.
  394. Quail MA, Russell RK, Van Limbergen JE, et al: Fecal calprotectin complements routine laboratory investigations in diagnosing childhood inflammatory bowel disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:756Ц759, 2009.
  395. Quiros AB, Sanz EA, Ordiz DB, et al: From autoimmune enteropathy to the IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome, Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:208Ц215, 2009.
  396. Ricart E.: Current status of mesenchymal stem cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation in IBD, Dig Dis 30:387Ц391, 2012.
  397. Romano C, Famiani A, Gallizzi R, et al: Indeterminate colitis: a distinctive clinical pattern of inflammatory bowel disease in children, Pediatrics 122:e1278Цe1281, 2008.
  398. Rutgeerts P, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, et al: Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis, N Engl J Med 353:2462Ц2476, 2005.
  399. Sandborn WJ, Ghosh S, Panes J, et al: Tofacitinib, an oral janus kinase inhibitor, in active ulcerative colitis, N Engl J Med 367:616Ц624, 2012.
  400. Sandborn WJ, Su C, Sands BE, et al: Tofacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis, N Eng J Med 376(18):1723Ц1736, 2017.
  401. Schwiertz A, Jacobi M, Frick JS, et al: Microbiota in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, J Pediatr 157:240Ц244, 2010.
  402. The Medical Letter: Budesonide (Uceris) for ulcerative colitis, Med Lett 55:23, 2013.
  403. The Medical Letter: Budesonide rectal foam (Uceris) for ulcerative colitis, Med Lett 57(1481):154, 2015.
  404. The Medical Letter: Drugs for inflammatory bowel disease, Med Lett 56:59Ц66, 2014.
  405. The Medical Letter: Ustekinumab (stelara) for CrohnТs disease, Med Lett 59(1511):5Ц6, 2017.
  406. Timmer A, Obermeier F: Reduced risk of ulcerative colitis after appendectomy, BMJ 338:781Ц782, 2009.
  407. Torres J, Mehandru S, Columbel J, Peyrin-Biroulet F: CrohnТs disease, Lancet 389:741Ц755, 2017.
  408. Turner D, Levine A, Kolho KL, et al: Combination of oral antibiotics may be effective in severe pediatric ulcerative colitis: a preliminary report, J Crohns Colitis 8(11):1464Ц1470, 2012.
  409. Turner D, Travis SP, Griffiths AM, et al: Consensus for managing acute severe ulcerative colitis in children: a systematic review and joint statement from ECCO, ESPGHAN, and the porto IBD working group of espghan, Am J Gastroenterol 106:574Ц588, 2011.
  410. Uhlig HH, Schwerd T, Koletzko S, et al: The diagnostic approach to monogenic very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology 147:990Ц1007, 2014.
  411. Uhlig HH: Monogenic diseases associated with intestinal inflammation: implications for the understanding of inflammatory bowel disease, Gut 62:1795Ц1805, 2013.
  412. Ungaro R, Mehandru S, Allen PB, et al: Ulcerative colitis, Lancet 389:1756Ц1770, 2017.
  413. Van de Vijver E, Schreuder AB, Cnossen WR, et al: Safely ruling out inflammatory bowel disease in children and teenagers without referral from endoscopy, Arch Dis Child 97:1014Ц1018, 2012.
  414. Vermeire S, Sandborn WJ, Danese S, et al: Anti-MAdCAM antibody (PF-00547659) for ulcerative colitis (TURANDOT): a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet 390:135Ц144, 2017.
  415. Yang LS, Alex G, Catto-Smith AG: The use of biologic agents in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 24:609Ц614, 2012.
  416. Yen EF, Pardi DS: Non-IBD colitides (eosinophilic, microscopic), Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 26:611Ц622, 2012.
  417. Absah I, Stephens M: Adjunctive treatment to antitumor necrosis factor in pediatric patients with refractory CrohnТs disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 25:624Ц628, 2013.
  418. Ananthakrishnan AN: Filgotinib for CrohnТs disease Ч expanding treatment options, Lancet 389:228Ц229, 2017.
  419. Ardizzone S, Maconi G, Sampietro GM, et al: Azathioprine and mesalamine for prevention of relapse after conservative surgery for crohn disease, Gastroenterology 127:730Ц740, 2004.
  420. Ashton JJ, Ennis S, Beattie RM: Early-onset paediatric inflammatory bowel disease, Lancet 1:147Ц158, 2017.
  421. Barrett JC, Hansoul S, Nicolae DI, et al: Genome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for CrohnТs disease, Nat Genet 40:955Ц962, 2008.
  422. Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ: CrohnТs disease, Lancet 380:1590Ц1602, 2012.
  423. Beaugerie L, Brousse N, Bouvier AM, et al: Lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study, Lancet 374:1617Ц1624, 2009.
  424. Biancheri P, Di Sabatino A, Rovedatti L, et al: Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade on mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 in CrohnТs disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis 19(2):259Ц264, 2013.
  425. Borelli O, Cordischi L, Cirulli M, et al: Polymeric diet alone versus corticosteroids in the treatment of active pediatric CrohnТs disease: a randomized controlled open-label trial, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:744Ц753, 2006.
  426. Catalano OA, Gee MS, Nicolai E, et al: Evaluation of quantitative PET/MR enterography biomarkers for discrimination of inflammatory strictures from fibrotic strictures in crohn disease, Radiology 278(3):792Ц800, 2016.
  427. Cheifetz AS: Management of active crohn disease, JAMA 309:2150Ц2158, 2013.
  428. Ciccocioppo R, Corazza GR: Mesenchymal stem cells for fistulizing CrohnТs disease, Lancet 388:1251Ц1252, 2016.
  429. Colombel JF, Panaccione R, Bossuyt P, et al: Effect of tight control management on CrohnТs disease (CALM): a multicenter, randomized, controlled phase 3 trial, Lancet 390:27792788, 2017.
  430. Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Reinisch W, et al: Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 362(15):1383Ц1394, 2010.
  431. DТHaens G, Baert F, van Assche G, et al: Early combined immunosuppression or conventional management in patients with newly diagnosed CrohnТs disease: an open randomized trial, Lancet 371:660Ц667, 2008.
  432. De Felice KM, Katzka DA, Raffals LE: CrohnТs disease of the esophagus: clinical features and treatment outcomes in the biologic era, Inflamm Bowel Dis 21(9):2106Ц2113, 2Ц15, 2005.
  433. DeBoer MD, Denson LA: Delays in puberty, growth, and accrual of bone mineral density in pediatric CrohnТs disease: despite temporal changes in disease severity, the need for monitoring remains, J Pediatr 163:17Ц22, 2013.
  434. Feagan BG, Sandborn WJ, DТHaens G, et al: Induction therapy with the selective interleukin-23-inhibitor risankizumab in patients with moderate-to-severe CrohnТs disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, Lancet 389:1699Ц1708, 2017.
  435. Feagan BG, Sandborn WJ, Gasink C, et al: Ustekinumab as induction and maintenance therapy for CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 375(20):1946Ц1960, 2016.
  436. Gentile NM, Murray JA, Pardi DS: Autoimmune enteropathy: a review and update of clinical management, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 14:380Ц385, 2012.
  437. Grainge MJ, West J, Card TR: Venous thromboembolism during active disease and remission in inflammatory bowel disease: a cohort study, Lancet 375:657Ц662, 2010.
  438. Gupta K, Noble A, Kachelries KE, et al: A novel enteral nutrition protocol for the treatment of pediatric CrohnТs disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:1374Ц1378, 2013.
  439. Hanauer SB: Targeting interleukin 23 for CrohnТs disease: finding the right drug for the right patient, Lancet 389:1671Ц1672, 2017.
  440. Hyams J, Griffiths A, Markowitz J, et al: Safety and efficacy of adalimumab for moderate to severe CrohnТs disease in children, Gastroenterology 143:365Ц374, 2012.
  441. Kabi A, Nickerson KP, Homer CR, et al: Digesting the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: insights from studies of autophagy risk genes, Inflamm Bowel Dis 18:782Ц792, 2012.
  442. Kanneganti TD: Inflammatory bowel disease and the NLRP3 inflammasome, N Engl J Med 377(7):694Ц696, 2017.
  443. Kappelman MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman K, et al: The prevalence of geographic distribution of CrohnТs disease and ulcerative colitis in the United States, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:1424Ц1429, 2007.
  444. Khanna R, Bressler B, Levesque BG, et al: Early combined immunosuppression for the management of CrohnТs disease (REACT): a cluster randomized controlled trial, Lancet 386:1825Ц1834, 2015.
  445. Kugathasan S, Denson LA, Walters TW, et al: Prediction of complicated disease course for children newly diagnosed with CrohnТs disease: a multicenter inception cohort study, Lancet 389:1710Ц1718, 2017.
  446. Kugathasan S, Judd RH, Hoffmann RG, et al: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in wisconsin: a statewide population-based study, J Pediatr 143:525Ц531, 2003.
  447. Laakso S, Valta H, Verkasalo M, et al: Impaired bone health in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study in 80 pediatric patients, Calcif Tissue Int 91(2):121Ц130, 2012.
  448. Lazzerini M, Martelossi S, Magazzu G, et al: Effect of thalidomide on clinical remission in children and adolescents with refractory crohn diseaseЧa randomized clinical trial, JAMA 310(20):2164Ц2173, 2013.
  449. Monteleone G, Neurath MF, Ardizzone S, et al: Mongersen, an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, and CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 372(12):1104Ц1113, 2015.
  450. Oliva-Hemker M, Huftless S, Al Kazzi ES, et al: Clinical presentation and five-year therapeutic management of very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease in a large north American cohort, J Pediatr 167:527Ц532, 2015.
  451. Pellino G, Nicolai E, Catalano OA, et al: PET/MR versus PET/CT imaging: impact on the clinical management of small-bowel CrohnТs disease, J Crohn Colitis 10(3):277Ц285, 2017.
  452. Qiu Y, Li MY, Feng T, et al: Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy and safety of stem cell therapy for CrohnТs disease, Sten Cell Res Ther 8:136, 2017.
  453. Riguero M, Schraut W, Baidoo L, et al: Infliximab prevents CrohnТs disease recurrence after ileal resection, Gastroenterology 136:441Ц450, 2009.
  454. Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Rutgeerts P, et al: Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 369(8):711Ц721, 2013.
  455. Sandborn WJ, Gasink C, Gao LL, et al: Ustekinumab induction and maintenance therapy in refractory CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 367:1519Ц1528, 2012.
  456. Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, et al: Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing CrohnТs disease, N Engl J Med 350:876Ц885, 2004.
  457. Sands BE, Feagan BG, Rutgeerts P, et al: Effects of vedolizumab induction therapy for patients with CrohnТs disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist treatment failed, Gastroenterology 147(3):618Ц627, 2014.
  458. Seemann NM, Elkadri A, Walters TD, Langer JC: The role of surgery for children with perianal CrohnТs disease, J Pediatr Surg 50:140Ц143, 2015.
  459. Sentongo TA, Semeao EJ, Piccoli DA, et al: Growth, body composition, and nutritional status in children and adolescents with CrohnТs disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:33Ц40, 2002.
  460. Singer AAM, Gadepalli SK, Eder SJ, Adler J: Fistulizing CrohnТs disease presenting after surgery on a perianal lesion, Pediatrics 137(3):e20152878, 2016.
  461. Sinha R, Nwokolo C, Murphy PD: Magnetic resonance imaging in CrohnТs disease, BMJ 336:273Ц276, 2008.
  462. Torres J, Mehandru S, Colombel JF, Peyrin-Biroulet L: CrohnТs disease, Lancet 389:1741Ц1754, 2017.
  463. Turner D, Grossman AB, Rosh J, et al: Methotrexate following unsuccessful thiopurine therapy in pediatric CrohnТs disease, Am J Gastroenterol 102:2804Ц2812, 2007.
  464. Uhlig HH: Monogenic diseases associated with intestinal inflammation: implications for the understanding of inflammatory bowel disease, Gut 62:1795Ц1805, 2013.
  465. Vermeire S, Schreiber S, Petryka R, et al: Clinical remission in patients with moderate-to-severe CrohnТs disease treated with filgotinib (the FITZROY study): results from a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet 389:266Ц274, 2017.
  466. Walters TD, Kim MO, Denson LA, et al: Increased effectiveness of early therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha vs an immunomodulator in children with CrohnТs disease, Gastroenterology 146(2):383Ц391, 2014.
  467. Zimmermann EM, Al-Hawary MM: MRI of the small bowel in patients with CrohnТs disease, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 27:132Ц138, 2011.
  468. Agarwal S, Mayer L: Primary immunodeficiency: heeding suspicious gastrointestinal symptoms: diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with primary immunodeficiency, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:1050Ц1063, 2013.
  469. Aloi M, Lionetti P, Barabino A, et al: Phenotype and disease course of early-onset pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis 20(4):597Ц605, 2014.
  470. Benchimol EI, Mack DR, Nguyen GC, et al: Incidence, outcomes, and health services burden of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology 147(4):803Ц813, 2014.
  471. Bianco AM, Girardelli M, Tommasini A: Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease from multifactorial to monogenic forms, World J Gastroenterol 21(43):12296Ц12310, 2015.
  472. Blaydon DC, Biancheri P, Di WL, et al: Inflammatory skin and bowel disease linked to ADAM17 deletion, N Engl J Med 365:1502Ц1508, 2013.
  473. Heyman MB, Kirschner BS, Gold BD, et al: Children with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): analysis of a pediatric IBD consortium registry, J Pediatr 146(1):35Ц40, 2005.
  474. Kelsen JR, Baldassano RN, Artis D, et al: Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(5):462Ц476, 2015.
  475. Kelsen JR, Dawany N, Martinez A, et al: A de novo whole gene deletion of XIAP detected by exome sequencing analysis in very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: a case report, BMC Gastroenterol 15(160):015Ц0394-z, 2015.
  476. Kelsen JR, Dawany N, Moran CJ, et al: Exome sequencing analysis reveals variants in primary immunodeficiency genes in patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology 149(6):1415Ц1424, 2015.
  477. Malaty HM, Fan X, Opekun AR, et al: Rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease among children: a 12-year study, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50(1):27Ц31, 2010.
  478. Quiros AB, Sanz EA, Ordiz DB, et al: From autoimmune enteropathy to the IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome, Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:208Ц215, 2009.
  479. Ricart E: Current status of mesenchymal stem cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation in IBD, Dig Dis 30:387Ц391, 2012.
  480. Snapper SB: Very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 11(8):554Ц556, 2015.
  481. Uhlig HH, Schwerd T, Koletzko S, et al: The diagnostic approach to monogenic very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology 147(5):990Ц1007.e3, 2014.
  482. Ngo P, Furuta G, Burks W: The pathobiology of eosinophilic gastroenteritis of childhood: is it really the eosinophil, allergic mediated, or something else? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 6:436Ц440, 2004.
  483. Reed C, Woosley JT, Dellon ES: Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and resource utilization in children and adults with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, Dig Liver Dis 47(3):197Ц201, 2015.
  484. Saeed SA, Integlia MJ, Pleskow RG, et al: Tacrolimus-associated eosinophilic gastro≠enterocolitis in pediatric liver transplant recipients: role of potential food allergies in pathogenesis, Pediatr Transplant 10:730Ц735, 2006.
  485. Samiullah S, Bhurgri H, Sohali U: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: approach to diagnosis and management, World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 43(3):495Ц504, 2016.
  486. Uppal V, Krieger P, Kutsch E: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and colitis: a comprehensive review, Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 50:175Ц188, 2016.
  487. Canani RB, Castaldo G, Bacchetta R, et al: Congenital diarrhoeal disorders: advances in this evolving web of inherited enteropathies, Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:293Ц302, 2015.
  488. Germ?n-D?az M, Rodriguez-Gil Y, Cruz-Rojo J, et al: A new case of congenital malabsorptive diarrhea and diabetes secondary to mutant neurogenin-3, Pediatrics 140(2):e20162210, 2017.
  489. Kurolap A, Eshach-Adiv O, Baris HN, et al: Loss of CDSS in eculizumab-responsive protein-losing enteropathy, N Engl J Med 377(1):87Ц90, 2017.
  490. Martin MG, Lindberg I, Solorzano-vargas S, et al: Congenital proprotein convertase 12 deficiency causes malabsorptive diarrhea and other endocrinopathies in a pediatric cohort, Gastroenterology 145:138Ц148, 2013.
  491. Overeem AW, Posovszky C, Rings EHMM, et al: The role of enterocyte defects in the pathogenesis of congenital diarrheal disorders, Dis Models Mechanisms 9:1Ц12, 2016.
  492. Ozen A, Comrie WA, Ardy RC, et al: CD55 deficiency, early-onset protein-losing enteropathy, and thrombosis, N Engl J Med 377(1):52Ц61, 2017.
  493. Stephen J, Vilboux T, Haberman Y, et al: Congenital protein losing enteropathy: an inborn error of lipid metabolism due to DGAT1 mutations, Eur J Hum Genetics 1Ц6, 2016.
  494. Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al: Screening for celiac disease: US preventive services task force recommendation statement, JAMA 317(12):1252Ц1257, 2017.
  495. Butwicka A, Lichtenstein P, Fris?n L, et al: Celiac disease is associated with childhood psychiatric disorders: a population-based study, J Pediatr 184:87Ц93, 2017.
  496. Francavilla R, Cristofori F, Verzillo L, et al: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial for the diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity in children, Am J Gastroenterol 113:421Ц430, 2018.
  497. Guandalini S, Polanco I: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity or wheat intolerance syndrome?, J Pediatr 166(4):805Ц811, 2015.
  498. Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szab? IR, et al: European society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology and nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of celiac disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54:136Ц160, 2012.
  499. Jackson JR, Eaton WW, Cascella NG, et al: Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, Psychiatr Q 83:91Ц102, 2012.
  500. Kivel? L, Kaukinen K, Huhtala H, et al: At-risk screened children with celiac disease are comparable in disease severity and dietary adherence to those found because of clinical suspicion: a large cohort study, J Pediatr 183:115Ц121, 2017.
  501. Kurppa K, Laitinen A, Agardh D: Coeliac disease in children with type 1 diabetes, Lancet Child Adolesc 2:133Ц142, 2018.
  502. Lebwohl B, Green PHR: Antitissue transglutaminase IgA for celiac disease testing, JAMA 315(1):81Ц82, 2016.
  503. Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PHR: Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, BMJ 351:h4347, 2015.
  504. Lebwohl B, Sanders DS, Green PHR: Coeliac disease, Lancet 391:70Ц80, 2018.
  505. Leffler DA, Green PHR, Fasano A: Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:561Ц571, 2015.
  506. Leonard MM, Sapone A, Catassi C, Fasano A: Celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity, JAMA 318(7):647Ц656, 2017.
  507. Lionetti E, Gatti S, Galeazzi T, et al: Safety of oats in children with celiac disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, J Pediatr 194:116Ц122, 2018.
  508. Pinto-S?nchez MI, Verdu EF, Liu E, et al: Gluten introduction to infant feeding and risk of celiac disease: systematic review and meta-analysis, J Pediatr 168:132Ц143, 2016.
  509. Reilly NR: The gluten-free diet: recognizing fact, fiction and fad, J Padiatr 175:206Ц210, 2016.
  510. Smith LB, Lynch KF, Kurppa K, et al: Psychological manifestations of celiac disease autoimmunity in young children, Pediatrics 139(3):e20162848, 2017.
  511. Snyder J, Decker Butzner J, DeFelice AR, et al: Evidence-informed expert recommenda≠tions for the management of celiac disease in children, Pediatrics 138(3):e20153147, 2016.
  512. Szajewska H, Shamir R, Mearin ML, et al: Gluten introduction and the risk of celiac disease: a position paper by the European society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology and nutrition, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 62:507Ц513, 2016.
  513. Vici G, Belli L, Massimiliano M, Polzonetti V: Gluten free diet and nutrient deficiencies: a review, Clin Nutr 35(6):1236Ц1241, 2016.
  514. Abumrad NA, Davidson NO: Role of the gut in lipid homeostasis, Physiol Rev 92:1061Ц1085, 2012.
  515. Akram S, Murray JA, Pardi DS, et al: Adult autoimmune enteropathy: mayo clinic Rochester experience, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:1282Ц1290, 2007.
  516. Burton BK, Balwani M, Feillet F, et al: A phase 3 trial of sebelipase alfa in lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, N Engl J Med 373:1010Ц1020, 2015.
  517. Canani RB, Terrin G, Cardillo G, et al: Congenital diarrheal disorders: improved understanding of gene defects leading to advances in intestinal physiology and management, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50:360Ц366, 2010.
  518. DТAntiga L, Goulet O: Intestinal failure in children: the European view, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56:118Ц126, 2013.
  519. Du A, McCracken KW, Walp ER, et al: Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans, Dev Biol 365:175Ц188, 2012.
  520. Fabre A, Breton A, Coste ME, et al: Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhoea of infancy/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome, Arch Dis Child 99:35Ц38, 2014.
  521. Fabre A, Charroux B, Martinez-Vinson C, et al: SKIV2L mutations cause syndromic diarrhea, or trichohepatoenteric syndrome, Am J Hum Genet 90:689Ц692, 2012.
  522. Fabre A, Martinez-Vinson C, Goulet O, et al: Syndromic diarrhea/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome, Orphanet J Rare Dis 8:5, 2013.
  523. Fabre A, Martinez-Vinson C, Roquelaure B, et al: Novel mutations in TTC37 associated with tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome, Hum Mutat 32:277Ц281, 2011.
  524. Farooqi IS, Volders K, Stanhope R, et al: Hyperphagia and early-onset obesity due to a novel homozygous missense mutation in prohormone convertase 1/3, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3369Ц3373, 2007.
  525. Gentile NM, Murray JA, Pardo DS: Autoimmune enteropathy: a review and update of clinical management, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 14:380Ц385, 2012.
  526. Golachowska MR, van Dael CML, Keuning H, et al: MYO5B mutations in patients with microvillus inclusion disease presenting with transient renal fanconi syndrome, JPGN 54:491Ц498, 2012.
  527. Gonzales E, Taylor SA, Davit-Spraul A, et al: MYO5B mutations cause cholestasis with normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in children without microvillous inclusion disease, Hepatology 65:164Ц173, 2017.
  528. Gortani G, Maschio M, Ventura A: A child with edema, lower limb deformity, and recurrent diarrhea, J Pediatr 161:1177, 2012.
  529. Goulet O, Salomon J, Ruemmele F, et al: Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy), Orphanet J Rare Dis 2:20, 2007.
  530. Goulet O, Vinson C, Roquelaure B, et al: Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy, Orphanet J Rare Dis 3:6, 2008.
  531. Haas JT, Winter HS, Lim E, et al: DGAT1 mutation is linked to a congenital diarrheal disorder, J Clin Invest 122:4680Ц4684, 2012.
  532. Halac U, Lacaille F, Joly F, et al: Microvillous inclusion disease: how to improve the prognosis of a severe congenital enterocyte disorder, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52:460Ц465, 2011.
  533. Hartley JL, Zachos NC, Dawood B, et al: Mutations in TTC37 cause trichohepatoenteric syndrome (phenotypic diarrhea of infancy), Gastroenterology 138:2388Ц2398, 2010.
  534. Hokari R, Kitagawa N, Watanabe C, et al: Changes in regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in intestinal lymphangiectasia with enteric protein loss, J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:88Ц95, 2008.
  535. Kisand K, Peterson P: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy, J Clin Immunol 35:463Ц478, 2015.
  536. Kurolap A, Eshach-Adiv O, Hershkovitz T, et al: Loss of CD55 in eculizumab-responsive protein-losing enteropathy, N Engl J Med 377:87Ц89, 2017.
  537. Mart?n MG, Lindberg I, Solorzano-Vargas RS, et al: Congenital proprotein convertase 1/3 deficiency causes malabsorptive diarrhea and other endocrinopathies in a pediatric cohort, Gastroenterology 145:138Ц148, 2013.
  538. Moes N, Rieux-Laucat F, Begue B, et al: Reduced expression of FOXP3 and regulatory T-cell function in severe forms of early-onset autoimmune enteropathy, Gastroenterol≠ogy 139:770Ц778, 2010.
  539. Montalto M, DТOnofrio F, Santoro L, et al: Autoimmune enteropathy in children and adults, Scand J Gastroenterol 44:1029Ц1036, 2009.
  540. Moller T, Hess MW, Schiefermeier N, et al: MYO5B mutations cause microvillus inclusion disease and disrupt epithelial cell polarity, Nat Genet 40:1163Ц1165, 2008.
  541. Ozeki M, Hori T, Kanda K, et al: Everolimus for primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with Protein-losing enteropathy, Pediatrics 137(3):e20152562, 2016.
  542. Pagel J, Beutel K, Lehmberg K, et al: Distinct mutations in STXBP2 are associated with variable clinical presentations in patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL5), Blood 119:6016Ц6024, 2012.
  543. Patey-Mariaud de Serre N, Canioni D, Ganousse S, et al: Digestive histopathological presentation of IPEX syndrome, Mod Pathol 22:95Ц102, 2009.
  544. Rabah F, Al-Hashmi N, Beshlawi I: WolmanТs disease with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Pediatr Hematol Oncol 31:576Ц578, 2014.
  545. Roche O, Putterman M, Salomon J, et al: Superficial punctate keratitis and conjunc≠tival erosions associated with congenital tufting enteropathy, Am J Ophthalmol 150:116Ц121, 2010.
  546. Ruemmele FM, Moes N, de Serre NP, et al: Clinical and molecular aspects of auto≠immune enteropathy and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy autoimmune enteropathy X-linked syndrome, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:742Ц748, 2008.
  547. Ruemmele FM, Schmitz J, Goulet O: Microvillous inclusion disease (microvillous atrophy), Orphanet J Rare Dis 26:22, 2006.
  548. Salomon J, Espinosa-Parrilla Y, Goulet O, et al: A founder effect at the EPCAM locus in congenital tufting enteropathy in the arabic gulf, Eur J Med Genet 54:319Ц322, 2011.
  549. Salomon J, Goulet O, Canioni D, et al: Genetic characterization of congenital tufting enteropathy: epcam associated phenotype and involvement of SPINT2 in the syndromic form, Hum Genet 133:299Ц310, 2014.
  550. Schnell U, Kuipers J, Mueller JL, et al: Absence of cell-surface EpCAM in congenital tufting enteropathy, Hum Mol Genet 22:2566Ц2571, 2013.
  551. Sherman PM, Mitchell DJ, Cutz E: Neonatal enteropathies: defining the causes of protracted diarrhea of infancy, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 38:16Ц26, 2004.
  552. Sivagnanam M, Mueller JL, Lee H, et al: Identification of EpCAM as the gene for congenital tufting enteropathy, Gastroenterology 135:429Ц437, 2008.
  553. Smith SB, Qu HQ, Taleb N, et al: Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans, Nature 463:775Ц780, 2010.
  554. Spiegel R, Dobbie A, Hartman C, et al: Clinical characterization of a newly described neonatal diabetes syndrome caused by RFX6 mutations, Am J Med Genet A 155A:2821Ц2825, 2011.
  555. Szperl AM, Golachowska MR, Bruinenberg M, et al: Functional characterization of mutations in the myosin vb gene associated with microvillus inclusion disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52:307Ц313, 2011.
  556. Terrin G, Tomaiuolo R, Passariello A, et al: Congenital diarrheal disorders: an updated diagnostic approach, Inter J Molecular Sci 13:4168Ц4185, 2012.
  557. Valayannopoulos V, Malinova V, Honz?k T, et al: Sebelipase alfa over 52 weeks reduces serum transaminases, liver volume and improves serum lipids in patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, J Hepatol 61:1135Ц1142, 2014.
  558. Vignes S, Bellanger J: Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (waldmannТs disease), Orphanet J Rare Dis 3:5, 2008.
  559. Wang J, Cortina G, Wu SV, et al: Mutant neurogenin-3 in congenital malabsorptive diarrhea, N Engl J Med 355:270Ц280, 2006.
  560. Wiegerinck CL, Janecke AR, Schneeberger K, et al: Loss of syntaxin 3 causes variant microvillus inclusion disease, Gastroenterology 147:65Ц68, 2014.
  561. Wu CJ, Feng X, Lu M, et al: Matriptase-mediated cleavage of EpCAM destabilizes claudins and dysregulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis, J Clin Invest 2017. [Epub Jan 17 2017].
  562. Giannattasio A, Guarino A, Lo Vecchio A: Management of children with prolonged diarrhea, F1000Res 23:5, 2016.
  563. Keusch GT, Denno DM, Black RE, et al: Environmental enteric dysfunction: patho≠genesis, diagnosis, and clinical consequences, Clin Infect Dis 59:207Ц212, 2014.
  564. Marth T, Moos V, M?ller C, et al: Tropheryma whipplei infection and WhippleТs disease, Lancet Infect Dis 6:12Ц21, 2016.
  565. Owino V, Ahmed T, Freemark M, et al: Environmental enteric dysfunction and growth Failure/stunting in global child health, Pediatrics 2016 138. pii: e20160641.
  566. Prendergast AJ, Kelly P: Interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries, Curr Opin Infect Dis 29:229Ц236, 2016.
  567. Agarwal S, Mayer L: Diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with primary immunodeficiency, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:1050Ц1063, 2013.
  568. Coeuret S, de La Blanchardi?re A, et al: Campylobacter coli cultured from the stools of a patient with immunoproliferative small intestinal disease, Clin Microbiol Infect 20:908Ц911, 2014.
  569. Ewers EC, Sheffler RL, et al: Case report: immunoproliferative small intestinal disease associated with overwhelming polymicrobial gastrointestinal infection with transfor≠mation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Am J Trop Med Hyg 94:1177Ц1181, 2016.
  570. Foster LH, Portell CA: The role of infectious agents, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy in the treatment of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas, Cur Treat Options Oncol 16:28, 2015.
  571. Foukas PG, de Leval L: Recent advances in intestinal lymphomas, Histopathology 66:112Ц136, 2015.
  572. Kurimoto M, Sonoki T, et al: Severe enteropathy caused by ?-heavy chain disease lacking detectable m-proteins, Intern Med 53:581Ц585, 2014.
  573. Avitzur Y, Courtney-Martin G: Enteral approaches in malabsorption, Best Practice Res Clin Gastroenterol 30:295Ц307, 2016.
  574. Cohran VC, Prozialeck JD, Cole CR: Redefining short bowel syndrome in the 21st century, Pediatr Res 81(4):540Ц549, 2017.
  575. Courtney CM, Warner BW: Pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 29:363Ц370, 2017.
  576. DТAntiga L, Goulet O: Intestinal failure in children: the European view, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56:118Ц126, 2013.
  577. Duggan CP, Jaksic T: Pediatric intestinal failure, N Engl J Med 388(7):666Ц674, 2017.
  578. Khan FA, Squires RH, Litman HJ, et al: Predictors of enteral autonomy in children with intestinal failure: a multicenter cohort study, J Pediatr 167:2015.
  579. Lacaille F, Gupta G, Colomb V, et al: Intestinal failure associated liver disease: A position paper of the ESPGHAN working group of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 60:272Ц283, 2015.
  580. Mercer DF, Hobson BD, Gerhardt BK, et al: Serial transverse enteroplasty allows children with short bowel to wean from parenteral nutrition, J Pediatr 164:93Ц98, 2014.
  581. Sommovilla J, Warner BW: Surgical options to enhance intestinal function in patients with short bowel syndrome, Curr Opin Pediatr 26:350Ц355, 2014.
  582. Squires RH, Duggan C, Teitelbaum DH, et al: Natural history of pediatric intestinal failure: initial report from the pediatric intestinal failure consortium, J Pediatr 161:723Ц728, 2012.
  583. Vargas JH: Short bowel syndrome/intestinal failure, J Pediatr 163(5):1243Ц1246, 2013.
  584. Beer SS, Juarez MD, Vega MW, et al: Pediatric malnutrition: putting the new definition and standards into practice, Nutr Clin Pract 30:609Ц624, 2015.
  585. Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, et al: Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries, Lancet 382:427Ц451, 2013.
  586. Chourdakis M, Hecht C, Gerasimidis K, et al: Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of three screening tools in a large European population, Am J Clin Nutr 103:1301Ц1310, 2016.
  587. Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, et al: European society for paediatric gastroenterol≠ogy, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European society for paediatric infectious diseases. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 59:132Ц152, 2014.
  588. Mehta NM, Corkins MR, Lyman B, et al: Defining pediatric malnutrition: A paradigm shift towards etiology related definitions, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 37:460Ц481, 2013.
  589. Ennatah NS, Sahi T, Savilahti E, et al: Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia, Nat Genet 30:233Ц237, 2002.
  590. Ferre EMN, Rose SR, Rosenzweig SD, et al: Redefined clinical features and diagnostic criteria in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, JCI Insight 2016.
  591. Gericke B, Amiri M, Scott CR, et al: Molecular pathogenicity of novel sucrase-isomaltase mutations found in congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency patients, Biochem Biophys Acta 1863:817Ц826, 2017.
  592. Henstrom L, Diekmann L, Bonfiglio F, et al: Functional variants in the sucrase-isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome, Gut 0:1Ц8, 2016.
  593. Holzinger A, Maier E, B?ck C, et al: Mutations in the proenteropeptidase gene are the molecular cause of congenital enteropeptidase deficiency, Am J Hum Genet 70:20Ц25, 2002.
  594. Kvissberg MA, Dalvi PS, Kerac M, et al: Carbohydrate malabsorption in acutely malnourished children and infants: a systematic review, Nutr Rev 74:48Ц58, 2016.
  595. Murray IA, Coupland K, Smith JA, et al: Intestinal trehalase activity in a UK population establishing a normal range and the effect of disease, Brit J Nutr 83:241Ц245, 2000.
  596. Palermo JJ: Trypsinogen deficiency disease, J Pediatr 166:308, 2015.
  597. Treem WR: Clinical aspects and treatment of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, J Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 55:7Ц13, 2012.
  598. Vandenplas I: Lactose intolerance, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 24:9Ц13, 2015.
  599. Wright E: Glucose transport families SLC5 and SLC50, Mol Aspects Med 34:183Ц196, 2013.
  600. Baerlocher K, Solioz M: Disorders of copper, zinc and iron metabolism. In Babu E, Duran M, Blaskovics ME, et al, editors: PhysicianТs guide to the laboratory diagnosis of metabolic diseases, ed 2, Heidelberg, 2003, Springer-Verlag, pp 631Ц658.
  601. Broer S, Palac?n M: The role of amino acid transporters in inherited and acquired diseases, Biochem J 436:193Ц211, 2011.
  602. Camargo SM, Singer D, Makrides V, et al: Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations, Gastroenterology 136:872Ц882, 2009.
  603. Hihnala S, Hoglund P, Lammi L, et al: Long-term clinical outcome in patients with congenital chloride diarrhea, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42:369Ц375, 2006.
  604. Hoglund P, Auranen M, Socha J, et al: Genetic background of congenital chloride diarrhea in high-incidence populations: Finland, Poland, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, Am J Hum Genet 63:760Ц768, 1998.
  605. Iolascon A, De Falco L, Beaumont C: Molecular basis of inherited microcytic anemia due to defects in iron acquisition or heme synthesis, Haematologica 94:395Ц408, 2009.
  606. Janecke AR, Heinz-Erian P, M?ller T: Congenital sodium diarrhea: a form of intractable diarrhea, With a link to inflammatory bowel disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 63:170Ц176, 2016.
  607. Kasana S, Din J, Maret W: Genetic causes and geneЦnutrient interactions in mammalian zinc deficiencies: acrodermatitis enteropathica and transient neonatal zinc deficiency as examples, J Trace Elem Med Biol 29:47Ц62, 2015.
  608. Mauhin W, Habarou F, Gobin S, et al: Update on lysinuric protein intolerance, a Multi-faceted disease retrospective cohort analysis from birth to adulthood, Orphanet J Rare Dis 12:3, 2017.
  609. Pietrangelo A: Hereditary hemochromatosisЧa new look at an old disease, N Engl J Med 350:2383Ц2397, 2005.
  610. Qiu A, Jansen M, Sakaris A, et al: Identification of an intestinal folate transporter and the molecular basis for hereditary folate malabsorption, Cell 127:917Ц928, 2006.
  611. Tanner SM, Li Z, Perko JD, et al: Hereditary juvenile cobalamin deficiency caused by mutations in the intrinsic factor gene, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:4130Ц4133, 2005.
  612. Veldhuis NA, Gaeth AP, Pearson RB, et al: The multi-layered regulation of copper translocating P-type ATPases, Biometals 22:177Ц190, 2009.
  613. Visentin M, Diop-Bove N, Zhao R, Goldman ID: The intestinal absorption of folates, Annu Rev Physiol 76:251Ц274, 2014.
  614. Whitehead VM: Acquired and inherited disorders of cobalamin and folate in children, Br J Haematol 134:125Ц136, 2006.
  615. Abu-Elmagd K, Fung J, Bueno J, et al: Logistics and technique for procurement of intestinal, pancreatic and hepatic grafts from the same donor, Ann Surg 232:680Ц697, 2000.
  616. Berg CL, Steffick DE, Edwards EB, et al: Liver and intestine transplantation in the United States 1998Ц2007, Am J Transplant 9(4 Pt 2):907Ц931, 2009.
  617. Bond G, Reyes J, Mazariegos G, et al: The impact of positive T-cell lymphocytotoxic crossmatch on intestinal allograft rejection and survival, Transplant Proc 32:1197Ц1198, 2000.
  618. Choquet S, Oertel S, LeBlond V, et al: Rituximab in the management of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation: proceed with caution, Ann Hematol 86:599Ц607, 2007.
  619. Fishbein TW, Matsumoto CS: Intestinal replacement therapy: timing and indications for referral of patients to an intestinal rehabilitation and transplant program, Gastroenterology 130:S147ЦS151, 2006.
  620. Grant D, Abu-Elmagd K, Reyes J, et al: 2003 report of the intestine transplant registry: a new era has dawned, Ann Surg 241:607Ц613, 2005.
  621. Green M, Reyes J, Webber S, et al: The role of antiviral and immunoglobulin therapy in the prevention of Epstein-barr virus infection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease following solid organ transplantation, Transpl Infect Dis 3:97Ц103, 2001.
  622. Kauffman SS, Atkinson JB, Bianchi A, et al: Indications for pediatric intestinal transplantation, Pediatr Transplant 5:80Ц87, 2001.
  623. Kelly DA: Intestinal failure associated liver disease: what do we know today?, Gastroenterology 130(2 Suppl 1):S70ЦS77, 2006.
  624. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network: Data (website). http://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/data/.
  625. Puntis J, Jenkins HR: Intestinal failure, Arch Dis Child 94:919Ц920, 2009.
  626. Reyes J, Mazariegos GV, Abu-Elmagd K, et al: Intestinal transplantation under tacrolimus monotherapy after perioperative lymphoid depletion with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), Am J Transplant 5:1430Ц1436, 2005.
  627. Reyes J, Mazariegos GV, Bond GM, et al: Pediatric intestinal transplantation: historical notes, principles and controversies, Pediatr Transplant 6:193Ц207, 2002.
  628. Rogers J, Bueno J, Shapiro R, et al: Results of simultaneous and sequential pediatric liver and kidney transplantation, Transplantation 72:1666Ц1670, 2001.
  629. Salvia G, Guarino A, Terrin G, et al: Neonatal onset intestinal failure: an Italian multicenter study, J Pediatr 153:674Ц676, 2008.
  630. Sherman PM, Mitchell DJ, Cutz E: Neonatal enteropathies: defining the causes of protracted diarrhea of infancy, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 38:16Ц26, 2004.
  631. Singh N, Paterson DL, Gayowski T, et al: Cytomegalovirus antigenemia directed pre-emptive prophylaxis with oral versus i.V. ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients: a randomized, controlled trial, Transplantation 70:717, 2000.
  632. Smith JM, Skeans MA, Horslen SP, et al: OPTN?SRTR 2015 annual data report: intestine, Am J Transplant 17(Suppl 1):252Ц285, 2017.
  633. Squires RH, Duggan C, Teitelbaum DH, et al: Natural history of pediatric intestinal failure: initial report from the pediatric intestinal failure consortium, J Pediatr 161:723Ц728, 2012.
  634. Starzl TE, Demtris AJ, Trucco M, et al: Cell migration and chimerism after whole-organ transplantation: the basis of graft acceptance, Hepatology 17:1127Ц1156, 1993.
  635. Testa G, Holterman M, John E, et al: Combined living donor liver/small bowel transplantation, Transplantation 27:1401Ц1404, 2005.
  636. Applegate JA, Walker CLF, Ambikapathi R, et al: Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children, BMC Public Health 13(Suppl 3):S16, 2013.
  637. Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for prevention of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, Med Lett Drugs Ther 59(1517):49Ц50, 2017.
  638. Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Walker N, Lancet Diarrhoea and Pneumonia Interventions Study Group, et al: Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?, Lancet 381(9875):1417Ц1429, 2013.
  639. Bhutta ZA, Black RE, Chopra M, et al: Excellent can be the enemy of good: the case of diarrhoea management Ч authorsТ reply, Lancet 382(9889):308, 2013.
  640. Bhutta ZA1, Das JK, Rizvi A, et al: Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?, Lancet 382(9890):452Ц477, 2013.
  641. Binnicker MJ, Multiplex Molecular Panels for Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Infection: Performance, Result interpretation, and Cost-effectiveness, J Clin Microbiol 53(12):3723Ц3728, 2015.
  642. Bowen MD, Mijatovic-Rustempasic S, Esona MD, et al: Rotavirus strain trends during the postlicensure vaccine era: United States, 2008Ц2013, J Infect Dis 214(5):732Ц738, 2016.
  643. Bryant K, McDonald LC: Clostridium difficile infections in children, Pediatr Infect Dis J 28(2):145Ц146, 2009.
  644. Brumbaugh DE, De Zoeten EF, Pyo-Twist A, et al: An intragastric fecal microbiota transplantation program for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile in children is efficacious, safe, and inexpensive, J Pediatr 194:123Ц127, 2018.
  645. CDC: Incidence and trends of infections with pathogens transmitted commonly through food and the effect of increasing use of culture-independent diagnostic tests on surveillance Ч foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 2013Ц1016, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 66(15):397Ц403, 2017.
  646. Danewa AS, Shah D, Batra P, et al: Oral ondansetron in management of dehydrating diarrhea with vomiting in children aged 3 months to 5 years: a randomized controlled trial, J Pediatr 169:105Ц109, 2016.
  647. Das JK, Kumar R, Salam RA, et al: The effect of antiemetics in childhood gastroenteritis, BMC Public Health 13(Suppl 3):S9, 2013.
  648. Das JK, Lassi ZS, Salam RA, et al: Effect of community based interventions on childhood diarrhea and pneumonia: uptake of treatment modalities and impact on mortality, BMC Public Health 13(Suppl 3):S29, 2013.
  649. DuPont HL: Bacterial diarrhea, N Engl J Med 361(16):1560Ц1569, 2009.
  650. Fagundes-Neto U: Persistent diarrhea: still a serious public health problem in developing countries, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 15(9):1Ц6, 2013.
  651. Feliciano L, Li J, Lee J, et al: Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations, PLoS ONE 7(12):e50273, 2012.
  652. Freedman SB, Ali S, Oleszczuk M, et al: Treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions commonly used in developed countries, Evid Based Child Health 8(4):1123Ц1137, 2013.
  653. Harris JR, Bergmire-Sweat D, Schlegel JH, et al: Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with small turtle exposure, 2007Ц2008, Pediatrics 124:1388Ц1394, 2009.
  654. Kao D, Roach B, Silva M, et al: Effect of oral capsule- vs colonoscopy-delivered fecal microbiota transplantation on recurrent Clostridium difficile infection Ч a randomizes clinical trial, JAMA 318(20):1985Ц1993, 2017.
  655. Kotloff KL, James PN, William CB, et al: Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the global enteric multicenter study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study, Lancet 382(9888):209Ц222, 2013.
  656. Kotloff KL, Riddle MS, Platts-Mills JA, et al: Shigellosis, Lancet 391(10122):801Ц812, 2018.
  657. Kotloff KL: The burden and etiology of diarrheal illness in developing countries, Pediatr Clin North Am 64(4):799Ц814, 2017.
  658. Lamberti LM, Walker CLF, Black RE: Systematic review of diarrhea duration and severity in children and adults in low-and middle-income countries, BMC Public Health 12(1):276, 2012.
  659. Lanata CF, Fischer-Walker CL, Olascoaga AC, et al: Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children, 5 years of age: a systematic review, PLoS ONE 8(9):e72788, 2013.
  660. Lenters LM, Das JK, Bhutta ZA: Systematic review of strategies to increase use of oral rehydration solution at the household level, BMC Public Health 13(Suppl 3):S28, 2013.
  661. Louie TJ, Miller MA, Mullane KM, et al: Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection, N Engl J Med 364(5):422Ц431, 2011.
  662. Madhi SA, Cunliffe NA, Steele D, et al: Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants, N Engl J Med 362:289Ц298, 2010.
  663. Marder EP, Griffin PM, Cieslak PR, et al: Preliminary incidence and trends of infections with pathogens transmitted commonly through food Ч foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006Ц2017, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 67(11):324Ц328, 2018.
  664. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al: Clinical practice guidelines for clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA) and society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA), Clin Infect Dis 66(7):987Ц994, 2018.
  665. Mettee Zarecki SL, Bennett SD, Hall J, et al: US outbreak of human Salmonella infections associated with aquatic frogs, 2008Ц2011, Pediatrics 131(4):724Ц731, 2013.
  666. Munos MK, Walker CLF, Black RE: The effect of oral rehydration solution and recommended home fluids on diarrhoea mortality, Int J Epidemiol 39(Suppl 1):i75Цi87, 2010.
  667. Munos MK, Walker CLF, Black RE: The effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhoea mortality, Int J Epidemiol 39(Suppl 1):i56Цi62, 2010.
  668. Nicholson MR, van Horn GT, Tang Y-W, et al: Using multiplex molecular testing to determine the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children, J Pediatr 176:50Ц56, e2, 2016.
  669. Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, et al: Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998Ц2008, Emerg Infect Dis 19(3):407Ц415, 2013.
  670. Patro B, Szymanski H, Szajewska H: Oral zinc for the treatment of acute, gastroenteritis in Polish children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, J Pediatr 157:984Ц988, 2010.
  671. Payne DC, Vinj? J, Szilagyi PG, et al: Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children, N Engl J Med 368(12):1121Ц1130, 2013.
  672. Pensabene L, Talarico V, Concolino D, et al: Postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: a multicenter prospective study, J Pediatr 166:903Ц907, 2015.
  673. Platts-Mills JA, Rogawski ET, Kabir F, et al: Use of quantitive molecular diagnostic methods to assess the aetiology, burden, and clinical characteristics of diarrhoea in children in low-resource settings: a reanalysis of the MAL-ED cohort study, Lancet Glob Health 6(12):e1309Цe1318, 2018.
  674. Qadir MI, Arshad A, Ahmad B: Zinc: role in the management of diarrhea and cholera, World J Clin Cases 1(4):140, 2013.
  675. Richardson V, Hernandez-Pichardo J, Quintanar-Solares M, et al: Effect of rotavirus vaccination on death from childhood diarrhea in Mexico, N Engl J Med 362:299Ц305, 2010.
  676. Riddle MS, DuPont HL, Connor BA: ACG clinical guidelines: diagnsosis, treatment, and prevention of acute diarrheal infections in adults, Am J Gastroenterol 111:602Ц622, 2016.
  677. Ross AGP, Olds GR, Cripps AW, et al: Enteropathogens and chronic illness in returning travelers, N Engl J Med 368:1817Ц1824, 2013.
  678. Rouhani S, Meloney L, Ahn R, et al: Alternative rehydration methods: a systematic review and lessons for resource-limited care, Pediatrics 127:e748Цe757, 2011.
  679. Sabot O, Schroder K, Yamey G, et al: Scaling up oral rehydration salts and zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea, BMJ 344:e940, 2012.
  680. Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Casper TC, et al: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus placebo for acute gastroenteritis in children, N Engl J Med 379(21):2002Ц2014, 2018.
  681. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al: 2017 infectious diseases society for America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea, Clin Infect Dis 65(12):e45Цe80, 2017.
  682. Freedman SB, Cho D, Boutis K, et al: Assessing the palatability of oral rehydration solutions in school-aged children, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164(8):696Ц702, 2010.
  683. Freedman SB, Vandermeer B, Milne A, et al: Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis, J Pediatr 166:908Ц916, 2015.
  684. Freedman SB, Williamson-Urguhart S, Farion KJ, et al: Multicenter trial of a combination probiotic for children with gastroenteritis, N Engl J Med 379(21):2015Ц2026, 2018.
  685. GBD 2016 Diarrheal Disease Collaborators: Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoea in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, Lancet Infect Dis 18(11):1211Ц1228, 2018.
  686. Glass RI, Parashar UD, Estes MK: Norovirus gastroenteritis, N Engl J Med 361(18):1776Ц1784, 2009.
  687. Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, et al: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children (review), Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12):CD006095, 2017.
  688. Goldman RD, Friedman JN, Parkin PC: Validation of the clinical dehydration scale for children with acute gastroenteritis, Pediatrics 122:545Ц549, 2008.
  689. Gould LH, Rosenblum I, Nicholas D, et al: Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007, J Food Prot 76(11):1824Ц1828, 2013.
  690. Grant L, Vinj? J, Parashar U, et al: Epidemiologic and clinical features of other enteric viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in American Indian infants, J Pediatr 161:110Ц115, 2012.
  691. Grytdal SP, DeBess E, Lee LE, et al: Incidence of norovirus and other viral pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among kaiser permanente member populations in the United States, 2012Ц2013, PLoS ONE 11(4):e0148395, 2016.
  692. Sivapalasingam SN, Nelson JM, Joyce K, et al: High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(1):49Ц54, 2006.
  693. Spandorfer PR, Alessandrini EA, Joffe MD, et al: Oral versus intravenous rehydration of moderately dehydrated children: a randomized, controlled trial, Pediatrics 115:295Ц301, 2005.
  694. Stachan NJC, Forbes KJ: The growing UK epidemic of human campylobacteriosis, Lancet 376:665Ц666, 2010.
  695. Steffen R, Hill DR, DuPont HL: TravelerТs diarrhea Ч a clinical review, JAMA 313(1):71Ц80, 2015.
  696. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: FDA limits packaging for anti-diarrhea medicine loperamide (Imodium) to encourage safe use. https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm594232.htm.
  697. Walker CLF, Black RE: Zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea: effect on diarrhoea morbidity, mortality and incidence of future episodes, Int J Epidemiol 39(Suppl 1):i63Цi69, 2010.
  698. Wilcox MH, Gerding DN, Poxton IR, et al: Bezlotoxumab for prevention of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, N Engl J Med 376(4):305Ц317, 2017.
  699. Zanger P, Nurjadi D, Gabor J, et al: Effectiveness of rifaximin in prevention of diarrhea in diarrhoea in individuals travelling to south and southeast asia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, Lancet 13(11):946Ц954, 2013.
  700. Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, et al: Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhea in adults, 3rd ed, 2018, British Society of Gastroenterology. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315909. [Epub ahead of print]. Gut.
  701. Benninga MA, Nurko S, Faure C, et al: Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: Neonate/toddler, Gastroenterology 150:1443Ц1455, 2016.
  702. Bernaola Aponte G, Bada Mancilla CA, Carreazo NY, et al: Probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children, Cochrane Database Syst Rev (8):CD007401, 2013.
  703. Berni Canani R, Terrin G: Recent progress in congenital diarrheal disorders, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 13:257Ц264, 2011.
  704. Born P: Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints, World J Gastroenterol 13:5687Ц5691, 2007.
  705. Buccigrossi V, Nicastro E, Guarino A: Functions of intestinal microflora in children, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 29:31Ц38, 2013.
  706. DТAntiga L, Goulet O: Intestinal failure in children: the European view, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56:118Ц126, 2013.
  707. DuPont HL: Persistent diarrhea- a clinical review, JAMA 315:2712Ц2723, 2016.
  708. Guarino A, Lo Vecchio A, Berni Canani R: Chronic diarrhoea in children, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 26:649Ц661, 2012.
  709. Lo Vecchio A, Arigliani M, Russo M, et al: Stepwise diagnostic approach to chronic diarrhea compared with the algorithm proposed in the new nelson textbook of pediatrics, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52:e95, 2011.
  710. Lo Vecchio A, Zacur G: Clostridium difficile infection: an update on epidemiology, risk factors, and therapeutic options, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28:1Ц9, 2012.
  711. Moore SR: Update on prolonged and persistent diarrhea in children, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 27:19Ц23, 2011.
  712. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, MD). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/ at January 2017.
  713. Pezzella V, De Martino L, Passariello A, et al: Investigation of chronic diarrhea in infancy, Early Hum Dev 89:893Ц897, 2013.
  714. Salvia G, Guarino A, Terrin G, et al: Neonatal onset intestinal failure: an Italian multicenter study, J. Pediatrics. 153:674Ц676, 2008.
  715. Simron M, Barbara G, Flint H, et al: Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a rome foundation report, Gut 62:159Ц176, 2013.
  716. Terrin G, Tomaiuolo R, Passariello A, et al: Congenital diarrheal disorders: an updated diagnostic approach, Int J Mol Sci 13:4168Ц4185, 2012.
  717. Zelia GC, Israel EJ: Chronic diarrhea in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 33:207Ц216, 2012.
  718. Singh S, Asa SL, Dey C, et al: Diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: An evidence-based Canadian consensus, Cancer Treat Rev 47:32Ц45, 2016.
  719. Iqbal CW: Whaof DC: Diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumor in children, Curr Opin Pediatr 21:379Ц385, 2009.
  720. Benninga MA, Nurko S, Faure C: Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler, Gastroenterology 150:1443Ц1455, 2016.
  721. Bhesania N, Cresci GAM: A nutritional approach for managing irritable bowel syndrome, Curr Opin Pediatr 29:584Ц591, 2017.
  722. B?hn L, St?rsrud S, Liljebo T, et al: Diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome as well as traditional dietary advice: a randomized controlled trial, Gastroenterology 149:1399Ц1407, 2015.
  723. Bonnert M, Ol?n O, Lalouni M, et al: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial, Am J Gastroenterol 112(1):152Ц162, 2017.
  724. Chumpitazi BP, Hollister EB, Oezguen N, et al: Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome, Gut Microbes. 5(2):165Ц175, 2014.
  725. Ford AC, Lacy BE, Talley NJ: Irritable bowel syndrome, N Engl J Med 376(26):2566Ц2578, 2017.
  726. Giannetti E, Maglione M, Sciorio E, et al: Do children just grow out of irritable bowel syndrome?, J Pediatr 183:122Ц126.e1, 2017.
  727. Horvath A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H: Meta-analysis: lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33(12):1302Ц1310, 2011.
  728. Horvath A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials: fiber supplements for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood, Ann Nutr Metab 61(2):95Ц101, 2012.
  729. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al: Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: child/adolescent, Gastroenterology 150:1456Ц1468, 2016.
  730. Koppen IJ, Nurko S, Saps M, et al: The pediatric rome IV criteria: whatТs new?, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 11(3):193Ц201, 2017.
  731. Kovacic K, Hainsworth K, Sood M, et al: Neurostimulation for functional abdominal pain disorders in childrenЧa randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2(10):727Ц737, 2017.
  732. Landgren K, Hallstr?m I: Effect of minimal acupuncture for infantile colic: a multicenter, three-armed, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (ACU-COL), Acupunct Med 35(3):171Ц179, 2017.
  733. Le Gal J, Michel JF, Rinaldi VE, et al: Association between functional gastrointestinal disorders and migraine in children and adolescents: a case-control study, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol (2):114Ц121, 2016.
  734. Liu X, Silverman A, Kern M, et al: Excessive coupling of the salience network with intrinsic neurocognitive brain networks during rectal distension in adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome: a preliminary report, Neurogastroenterol Motil 28(1):43Ц53, 2016.
  735. Mahoney LB, Nurki S, Rosen R: The prevalence of rome IV nonerosive esophageal phenotypes in children, J Pediatr 189:86Ц91, 2017.
  736. Rodriguez L, Diaz J, Nurko S: Safety and efficacy of cyproheptadine for treating dyspeptic symptoms in children, J Pediatr 163(1):261Ц267, 2013.
  737. Sung V, DТAmico F, Cabana MD, et al: Lactobacillus reuteri to treat infant colic: a meta-analysis, Pediatrics 141(1):e20171811, 2018.
  738. Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, et al: Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 58(2):258Ц274, 2014.
  739. Drugs for irritable bowel syndrome, Med Lett Drugs Ther 58(1504):121-126, 2016.
  740. Wolke D, Bilgin A, Samara M: Systematic review and meta-analysis: fussing and crying durations and prevalence of colic in infants, J Pediatr 185:55Ц61, 2017.
  741. Zeevenhooven J, Koppen IJN, Benninga MA: The new rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders in infants and children. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 20(1):1-12, 2017.
  742. Bhandari S, Venkatesan T: Clinical characteristics, Comorbidities and hospital outcomes in hospitalizations with cyclic vomiting syndrome: a nationwide analysis, Dig Dis Sci 62(8):2035Ц2044, 2017.
  743. Bhandari S, Venkatesan T: Novel treatments for cyclic vomiting syndrome: beyond ondansetron and amitriptyline, Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 14(4):495Ц506, 2016.
  744. Boles RG: High degree of efficacy in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with combined co-enzyme q10, L-carnitine and amitriptyline, a case series, BMC Neurol 11:102, 2011.
  745. Boles RG, Lovett-Barr MR, Preston A, et al: Treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with co-enzyme Q10 and amitriptyline, a retrospective study, BMC Neurol 10:10, 2010.
  746. Cristofori F, Thapar N, Saliakellis E, et al: Efficacy of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant in children with cyclical vomiting syndrome, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 40(3):309Ц317, 2014.
  747. Drumm BR, Bourke B, Drummond J, et al: Cyclical vomiting syndrome in children: a prospective study, Neurogastroenterol Motil 24(10):922Ц927, 2012.
  748. Evans RW, Whyte C: Cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine in adults and children, Headache 53(6):984Ц993, 2013.
  749. Fitzpatrick E, Bourke B, Drumm B, Rowland M: The incidence of cyclic vomiting syndrome in children: population-based study, Am J Gastroenterol 103(4):991Ц995, 2008.
  750. Hikita T, Kodama H, Ogita K, et al: Cyclic vomiting syndrome in infants and children: a clinical Follow-up study, Pediatr Neurol 57:29Ц33, 2016.
  751. Lee J, Wong SA, Li BU, Boles RG: NextGen nuclear DNA sequencing in cyclic vomiting syndrome reveals a significant association with the stress-induced calcium channel (RYR2), Neurogastroenterol Motil 27(7):990Ц996, 2015.
  752. Lee LY, Abbott L, Mahlangu B, et al: The management of cyclic vomiting syndrome: a systematic review, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24(9):1001Ц1006, 2012.
  753. Li BU, Lefevre F, Chelimsky GG, et al: North American society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology, and nutrition consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of cyclic vomiting syndrome, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47(3):379Ц393, 2008.
  754. Li BUK, Williams SE: Cyclic vomiting syndrome: clinical features and comorbidities, Contemp Pediatr 29:34Ц46, 2012.
  755. Moses J, Keilman A, Worley S, et al: Approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome: a large single-center experience with 106 patients, Pediatr Neurol 50(6):569Ц573, 2014.
  756. Venkatesa T, Zadvornova Y, Raff H, Hillard CJ: Endocannabinoid-related lipids are increased during an episode of cyclic vomiting syndrome, Neurogastroenterol Motil 28:1409Ц1418, 2016.
  757. Venkatesan T, Sengupta J, Lodhi A, et al: An internet survey of marijuana and hot shower use in adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), Exp Brain Res 232(8):2563Ц2570, 2014.
  758. Williamson JE, July M, Gonzalez LM, et al: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: cyclical vomiting behind the cloud of smoke, Am J Med 127(4):e1Цe2, 2014.
  759. Armstrong J, Merritt N, Jones S, et al: Non-operative of early, acute appendicitis in children: is it safe and effective?, J Pediatr Surg 49(5):782Ц785, 2014.
  760. Bachur RG, Lipsett SC, Monuteaux MC: Outcomes of nonoperative management of uncomplicated appendicitis, Pediatrics 140(1):e20170048, 2017.
  761. Bachur RG, Lipsett SC, Monuteaux MC: Outcomes of nonoperative management of uncomplicated appendicitis, Ped Rev 140:1, 2017.
  762. Bansal S, Banever GT, Karrer FM, Partrick DA: Appendicitis in children less than 5 years old: influence of age on presentation and outcome, Am J Surg 204:1031Ц1035, 2012.
  763. Boscarelli A, Frediani S, Ceccanti S, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of epiploic appendagitis in children, J Pediatr Surg 51(12):2123Ц2125, 2016.
  764. Ergul E: Heridity and familial tendency of acute appendicitis, Scan J Surg SJS Off Organ Finn Surg Soc Scand Surg Soc 96(4):290Ц292, 2007.
  765. Fitz RH: Perforating inflammation in the vermiform appendix with special reference to its early diagnosis and treatment, Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1:107Ц144, 1886.
  766. Georgiou R, Eaton S, Stanton M, et al: Efficacy and safety of nonoperative treatment for acute appendicitis: a meta-analysis, Pediatrics 139:3, 2017.
  767. Glass C, Rangel S: Overview and diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children, Sem Ped Surg 25:198Ц203, 2016.
  768. Hernandez MC, Polites SF, Aho JM, et al: Measuring anatomic severity in pediatric appendicitis: validation of the American association for the surgery of trauma appendicitis severity grade, J Pediatr 192:229Ц233, 2018.
  769. Huang L, Yin Y, Yang L, et al: Comparison of antibiotic therapy and appendectomy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children, JAMA Pediatr 171(5):426Ц434, 2017.
  770. Jancelewicz T, Kim G, Miniati D: Neonatal appendicitis: a new look at an old zebra, J Pediatr Surg 43:E1ЦE5, 2008.
  771. Kabir SA, Kabir SI, et al: How to diagnose an acutely inflamed appendix; a systematic review of the latest evidence, Int J Surg 40:155Ц162, 2017.
  772. Kronman MP, Oron AP, Ross RK, et al: Extended-versus narrower-spectrum antibiotics for appendicitis, Pediatrics 138(1):e20154547, 2016.
  773. Lopez JJ, Deans KJ, Minneci PC: Nonoperative management of appendicitis in children, Curr Opin Pediatr 29:358Ц362, 2017.
  774. Maaco S, Vrouenaets B, Castro SM: Evaluation of scoring systems in predicting acute appendicitis in children, Surgery 1599Ц1604, 2016.
  775. Minneci PC, Mahida JB, Lodwick DL, et al: Effectiveness of patient choice in nonoperative vs surgical management of pediatric uncomplicated acute appendicitis, JAMA Surg 151(5):408Ц415, 2016.
  776. Mudri M, Corialano K, Butter A: Cost analysis of nonoperative management of acute appendicitis in children, JPS 52:791Ц794, 2017.
  777. Nah SA, Ong SS, Lim WX, et al: Clinical relevance of the nonvisualized appendix on ultrasonography of the abdomen in children, J Ped 182:164Ц169, 2017.
  778. Pearce M, Salotti J, Little M, et al Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumors: a retrospective cohort study, published online, Institute of Health and Society, June 2012 499-505.
  779. Redmond P, Sawaya DE, Miller KH, Nowicki MJ: Epiploic appendagitis, Pediatr Energ Care 31(10):717Ц719, 2015.
  780. Rentea R, St Peter S: Pediatric appendicitis, Surg Clin N Am 97:93Ц112, 2017.
  781. Rentea R, St Peter S, Snyder C: Pediatric appendicitis: a state of the art review, Ped Surg Int 33:269Ц283, 2017.
  782. Rice-Townsend S, Barnes JN, Hall M, et al: Variations in practice and resource utilization associated with the diagnosis and management of appendicitis at freestanding childrenТs hospitals: implications for value-based comparative analysis, Ann Surg 259(6):1228Ц1234, 2014.
  783. Rollins KE, Varadahan KK, Neal KR, et al: Antibiotics versus appendectomy for the treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, World J Surg 40(10):2305Ц2318, 2016.
  784. Salminen P, Paajanen H, Rautio T, et al: Antibiotic therapy vs appendectomy for treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis, JAMA 313(23):2340Ц2348, 2015.
  785. Santohigashi K, Lewis K, Ho CH: ItТs not appendicitis!, J Pediatr 170:340, 2016.
  786. Schwartz KL, Gilad E, Sigalet D, et al: Neonatal acute appendicitis: a proposed algorithm for timely diagnosis, J Pediatr Surg 46:2060Ц2064, 2011.
  787. Shogilev D, Duus N, Odom S, Shapiro N: Diagnosing appendicitis: an evidence-based review of the diagnostic approach in 2014, West J Emerg Med 15(7):859Ц871, 2014.
  788. Smith M, Katz D, Lalani T, et al: ACR appropriateness criteria right lower quadrant Pain-suspected appendicitis, Ultrasound Q 31(2):85Ц91, 2015.
  789. Steiner Z, Buklan G, Stakievicz R, et al: A role for conservative antibiotic treatment in early appendicitis in children, J Pediatr Surg 50(9):1566Ц1568, 2015.
  790. Talan DA, Saltzman DJ, Mower WR, et al: Antibiotics-first versus surgery for appendicitis: a US pilot randomized controlled trial allowing outpatient antibiotic management, Ann Emerg Med 70(1):1Ц11, 2017.
  791. Willis Z, Duggan E, Bucher B, et al: Effect of clinical practice guideline for pediatric complicated appendicitis, JAMA Surg 151:5, 2016.
  792. Akkoyun J, Akbiyik F, Soylu SG: The use of digital photos and video images taken by a parent in the diagnosis of anal swelling and anal protrusions in children with normal physical examination, J Pediatr Surg 46:2132Ц2134, 2011.
  793. Bischoff A, Bealer J, Pen? A: Controversies in anorectal malformations, Lancet Child Adolesc Health 1:323Ц330, 2017.
  794. Georgeson KE, Inge TH, Albanese CT: Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through for high imperforate anusЧa new technique, J Pediatr Surg 35:927Ц930, 2000. Hashish MS, Dawoud HH, Hirschl RB, et al: Long-term functional outcome and quality of life in patients with high imperforate anus, J Pediatr Surg 45:224Ц230, 2010.
  795. Jonker JE, Trzpis M, Broens PMA: Underdiagnosis of mild congenital anorectal malformations, J Pediatr 186:101Ц104, 2017.
  796. Lee SC, Chun YS, Jung SE, et al: Currarino triad: anorectal malformation, sacral bony abnormality, and presacral massЧa review of 11 cases, J Pediatr Surg 32:58, 1997.
  797. Levitt MA, Haber HP, Seitz G, et al: Transperineal sonography for determination of the type of imperforate anus, AJR Am J Roentgenol 189:1525Ц1529, 2007.
  798. Levitt MA, Pe?a A: Outcomes from the correction of anorectal malformations, Curr Opin Pediatr 17:394Ц401, 2005.
  799. Mattix KD, Novotny NM, Shelley AA, et al: Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for fecal incontinence in imperforate anus improves quality of life, Pediatr Surg Int 23:1175Ц1177, 2007.
  800. Rintala RJ, Pakarinen MP: Imperforate anus: long- and short-term outcome, Semin Pediatr Surg 17:79Ц89, 2008.
  801. Sigalet DL, Laberge JM, Adolph VR, et al: The anterior sagittal approach for high imperforate anus: a simplification of the mollard approach, J Pediatr Surg 31:625Ц629, 1996.
  802. Simpson JA, Banerjea A, Scholefield JH: Management of anal fistula, BMJ 345:e5836, 2012.
  803. Spingford LR, Connor MJ, Jones K, et al: Prevalence of active long-term problems in patients with anorectal malformations: a systematic review, Dis Colon Rectum 59:570Ц580, 2016.
  804. Vick LR, Gosche JR, Boulanger SC, et al: Primary laparoscopic repair of high imperforate anus in neonatal males, J Pediatr Surg 42:1877Ц1881, 2007.
  805. Cevik M, Boleken ME, Koruk I, et al: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of diltiazem, glyceryl trinitrate, and lidocaine for the treatment of anal fissure in children, Pediatr Surg Int 28:411Ц416, 2012.
  806. Golfam F, Golfam P, Khalaj A, et al: The effect of topical nifedipine in treatment of chronic anal fissure, Acta Med Iran 48:295Ц299, 2010.
  807. Husberg B, Malmborg P, Strig?rd K: Treatment with botulinum toxin in children with chronic anal fissure, Eur J Pediatr Surg 19:290Ц292, 2009.
  808. Chang HK, Ryu JG, Oh JT: Clinical characteristics and treatment of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano in infants, J Pediatr Surg 45:1832Ц1836, 2010.
  809. Medical Letter: Nitroglycerin ointment (Rectiv) for anal fissure, Med Lett Drugs Ther 54:23Ц24, 2012.
  810. Othman I: Bilateral versus posterior injection of botulinum toxin in the internal anal sphincter for the treatment of acute anal fissure, S Afr J Surg 48:20Ц22, 2010.
  811. Pallin DJ, Egan DJ, Pelletier AJ, et al: Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, Ann Emerg Med 51:291Ц298, 2008.
  812. Wong KK, Wu X, Chan IH, et al: Evaluation of defecative function 5 years or longer after laparoscopic-assisted pull-through for imperforate anus, J Pediatr Surg 46:2313Ц2315, 2011.
  813. Watson AJM, Hudson J, Wood J, et al: Comparison of stapled haemorrhoidipexy with traditional excisional surgery for haemorrhoidal disease (eTHoS): a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, Lancet 388:2375Ц2385, 2016.
  814. Flum AS, Golladay ES, Teitelbaum DH: Recurrent rectal prolapse following primary surgical treatment, Pediatr Surg Int 26:427Ц431, 2010.
  815. Koivusalo AI, Pakarinen MP, Rintala RI, Seuri R: Dynamic defecography in the diagnosis of paediatric rectal prolapse and related disorders, Pediatr Surg Int 28:815Ц820, 2012.
  816. Potter DD, Bruny JL, Allshouse MJ, et al: Laparoscopic suture rectopexy for full-thickness anorectal prolapse in children: an effective outpatient procedure, J Pediatr Surg 45:2103Ц2107, 2010.
  817. Shah A, et al: Persistent rectal prolapse in children: sclerotherapy and surgical management, Pediatr Surg Int 21:270, 2005.
  818. Dudink R, Veldkamp J, Nienhuijs S, et al: Secondary healing versus midline closure and modified bascom natal cleft lift for pilonidal sinus disease, Scand J Surg 100:110Ц113, 2011.
  819. Fike FB, Mortellaro VE, Juang D, et al: Experience with pilonidal disease in children, J Surg Res 170:165Ц168, 2011.
  820. Hsieh MH, Perry V, Gupta N, et al: The effects of detethering on the urodynamics profile in children with a tethered cord, J Neurosurg 105:391Ц395, 2006.
  821. Lee SL, Tejirian T, Abbas MA: Current management of adolescent pilonidal disease, J Pediatr Surg 43:1124Ц1127, 2008.
  822. Nasr A, Ein SH: A pediatric surgeonТs 35-year experience with pilonidal disease in a Canadian childrenТs hospital, Can J Surg 54:39Ц42, 2011.
  823. Huang SC, Durno CA, Erdman SH: Lynch syndrome: a pediatric perspective, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 58(2):144Ц152, 2014.
  824. Kay M, Eng K, Wyllie R: Colonic polyps and polyposis syndromes in pediatric patients, Curr Opin Pediatr 27(5):634Ц641, 2015.
  825. Mullassery D, Weldon CB: Pediatric/ УwildtypeФ gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Semin Pediatr Surg 25:305Ц310, 2016.
  826. Pawel BR: Polyps and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract in childhood. In Russo P, Ruchelli ED, Piccoli DA, editors: Pathology of pediatric gastrointestinal and liver disease, ed 2, New York, NY, 2014, Springer.
  827. Syngal S, Brand RE, Church JM, et al: ACG clinical guideline: genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes, Am J Gastroenterol 110(2):223Ц262, 2015.
  828. Zevit N, Shamir R: Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 60(6):696Ц701, 2015.
  829. Abdulhai SA, Glenn IC, Ponsky TA: Incarcerated pediatric hernias, Surg Clin N Am 97:129Ц145, 2017.
  830. Alzahem A: Laparoscopic versus open inguinal herniotomy: a meta-analysis, Pediatr Surg Int 27(6):805Ц812, 2011.
  831. Chen LE, Zamakhshary M, Foglia RP, et al: Impact of wait time on outcome for inguinal hernia repair in infants, Pediatr Surg Int 25(3):223Ц227, 2009.
  832. Chunlei Y, Huanyu Z, Pu J, et al: Laparoscopic vs open herniorrhaphy in the management of pediatric inguinal hernia: a systemic review and meta-analysis, J Pediatr Surg 46:1824Ц1834, 2011.
  833. Esposito C, Escolino M, Farina A, et al: Two decades of history of laparoscopic pediatric inguinal hernia repair, J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech 24:669Ц670, 2014.
  834. Esposito C, Escolino M, Turra F, et al: Current concepts in the management of inguinal hernia and hydrocele in pediatric patients in laparoscopic era, Semin Pediatr Surg 25:232Ц240, 2016.
  835. Esposito C, St. Peter SD, Escolino M, et al: Laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair in pediatric patients: a systematic review, J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech 24(11):811Ц818, 2014.
  836. Feng S, Zhao L, Liao Z, et al: Open versus laparoscopic inguinal hrniotomy in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on postoperative complications, Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutaneous Tech 25:275Ц280, 2015.
  837. Gause CD, Sacco Casamassima MG, Yang J, et al: Laparoscopic versus open ingional hernia repair in children <3: a randomized controlled trial, Pediatr Surg Int 33:367Ц376, 2017.
  838. Juang D, Fraser JD, Holcomb GW III: The laparoscopic approach for repair of indirect inguinal hernias in infants and children, Transl Pediatr 5(4):222Ц226, 2016.
  839. Manoharan S, et al: Evidence-based change of practice in the management of unilateral inguinal hernia, JPS 40:1163, 2005.
  840. Ostlie DJ, Ponsky TA: Technical options of the laparoscopic pediatric inguinal hernia repair, J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech 24:194Ц198, 2014.
  841. Ponsky TA, Nalugo M, Ostlie DJ: Pediatric laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a review of the current evidence, J Laparoendosc Adsv Surg Tech A 24:183Ц187, 2014.
  842. Shalaby R, Ismail M, Samaha A, et al: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: experience with 874 children, J Pediatr Surg 49:460Ц464, 2014.
  843. Timberlake MD, Herbst KW, Rasmussen S, Corbett ST: Laparoscopic percutaneous inguinal hernia repair in children: review of technique and comparison with open surgery, J Pediatr Urology 11:262e1Ц262e8, 2015.
  844. Tsai Y, Wu CC, Yang S: Open vs minilaparoscopic herniorrhaphy for children: a prospective comparative trial with midterm follow-up evaluation, Surg Endosc 10(24):21, 2010.
  845. Werlin S, Mayer AN: Development of the exocrine pancreas. In Polin RA, Fox WW, Abman SH, editors: Fetal and neonatal physiology, 4th ed, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders, pp 1230Ц1239.
  846. Bertin C, Pelletier AL, Vullierme MP, et al: Pancreas divisum is not a cause of pancreatitis by itself but acts as a partner of genetic mutations, Am J Gastroenterol 107:311Ц317, 2012.
  847. Cano D, Hebrok M, Zenker M: Pancreatic development and disease, Gastroenterology 132:745Ц762, 2007.
  848. Etiennea D, Johna A, Menias CO, et al: Annular pancreas: A review of its molecular embryology, genetic basis and clinical considerations, Ann Anat 194:422Ц428, 2012.
  849. Howard ER: Congenital abnormalities. In Howard ER, Stringer MD, Colombani PM, editors: Surgery of the liver and bile ducts in children, ed 2, London, 2002, Arnold, pp 493Ц502.
  850. Beharry S, Ellis L, Corey M, et al: How useful is fecal pancreatic elastase 1 as a marker of exocrine pancreatic disease?, J Pediatr 141:84Ц90, 2002.
  851. Pfefferkorn M, Fitzgerald J, Croffie J, et al: Direct measurement of pancreatic enzymes: a comparison of secretagogues, Dig Dis Sci 47:2211Ц2216, 2002.
  852. Taylor C, Chen K, Horvath K, et al: ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN report on the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function and pancreatitis in children, J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 61:144Ц153, 2015.
  853. Walkowiak J, Nousia-Arvanitakis S, Henker J, et al: Indirect pancreatic function tests in children, J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 40:107Ц114, 2005.
  854. Christian M, Edwards C, Weaver LT: Starch digestion in infancy, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29:116Ц124, 1999.
  855. Werlin S, Mayer AN: Development of the exocrine pancreas. In Polin RA, Fox WW, Abman SH, editors: Fetal and neonatal physiology, ed 4, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders, pp 1230Ц1239.
  856. Boocock GR, Morrison JA, Popovic M, et al: Mutations in SBDS are associated with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Nat Genet 33:97Ц101, 2003.
  857. Jacobs LJ, Jongbloed RJ, Wijburg FA, et al: Pearson syndrome and the role of deletion dimmers and duplications in the mtDNA, J Inherit Metab Dis 47Ц55, 2004.
  858. Munck A, Alberti C, Colombo C, et al: International prospective study of distal intestinal obstruction in cystic fibrosis: associated factors and outcome, J Cyst Fibros 15:531Ц539, 2016.
  859. Myers KC, Davies SM, Shimamura A: Clinical and molecular pathophysiology of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: an update, Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 27(1):117Ц128, ix, 2013.
  860. Myers KC, Bolyard AA, Otto B, et al: Variable clinical presentation of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: update from the North American Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry, J Pediatr 164:866Ц870, 2014.
  861. Picker-Minh S, Mignot C, Doummar D, et al: Phenotype variability of infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease IMNEPD, Orphanet J Rare Dis 11:52, 2016.
  862. Toiviainen-Salo S, Raade M, Durie PR, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the pancreas in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and mutations in the SBDS gene, J Pediatr 152:434Ц436, 2008.
  863. Williams TB, Daniels M, Puthenveetil G, et al: Pearson syndrome: unique endocrine manifestations including neonatal diabetes and adrenal insufficiency, Mol Genet Metab 106:104Ц107, 2012.
  864. Zenker M, Mayerle J, Lerch MM, et al: Deficiency of UBR1, a ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway, causes pancreatic dysfunction, malformations and mental retardation (Johanson-Blizzard syndrome), Nat Genet 37:1345Ц1350, 2005.
  865. Baker SS, Borowitz D, Duffy D: Pancreatic enzyme therapy and clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis, J Pediatr 146:189Ц193, 2005.
  866. Borowitz D, Baker RD, Stallings V: Consensus report in nutrition for pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 35:246Ц259, 2002.
  867. Munck A, Duhamel J-F, Lamireau T, et al: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for young cystic fibrosis patients, J Cyst Fibros 8:14Ц18, 2009.
  868. OТSullivan BP, Baker D, Leung KG, et al: Evolution of pancreatic function during the first year in infants with cystic fibrosis, J Pediatr 162:808Ц812, 2013.
  869. The Medical Letter: Pancreatic enzyme replacement products, Med. Lett 59(1531):170, 2017.
  870. Abu-El-Haija M, Lin TK, Nathan JD: Management of acute pancreatitis in children, Curr Opin Pediatr 29:592Ц597, 2017.
  871. Abu-El-Haija M, Kumar S, Szabo F, et al: Classification of acute pancreatitis in the pediatric population: clinical report from the NASPGHAN pancreas committee, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64(6):984Ц990, 2017.
  872. Abu-El-Haija M, Wilhelm R, Heinzman C, et al: Early enteral nutrition in children with acute pancreatitis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 62:453Ц456, 2016.
  873. Adler DG: Surgery versus endoscopy for patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, Lancet 391:6Ц8, 2018.
  874. Bakker OJ, van Brunschot S, van Santvoort HC, et al: Early versus on-demand nasoenteric tube feeding in acute pancreatitis, N Engl J Med 371:1983Ц1992, 2014.
  875. Bierma MJ, Coffey MJ, Nightingale S, et al: Predicting severe acute pancreatitis in children based on serum lipase and calcium: A multicentre retrospective cohort study, Pancreatology 16:529Ц534, 2016.
  876. DiMagno MJ: Clinical update on fluid therapy and nutritional support in acute pancreatitis, Pancreatology 15:583Ц588, 2015.
  877. Kandula L, Lowe ME: Etiology and outcome of acute pancreatitis in infants and toddlers, J Pediatr 152:106Ц110, 2008.
  878. Lankisch PG, Apte M, Banks PA: Acute pancreatitis, Lancet 386:85Ц96, 2015.
  879. Lari?o-Noia J, Lindkvist B, Iglesias-Garc?a J, et al: Early and/or immediately full caloric diet versus standard refeeding in mild acute pancreatitis: a randomized open-label trial, Pancreatology 14:167Ц173, 2014.
  880. Morinville VD, Husain SZ, Bai H, et al: Definitions of pediatric pancreatitis and survey of present clinical practices, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 55:261Ц265, 2012.
  881. Raizner A, Phatak UM, Baker K, et al: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis in children, J Pediatr 161:788Ц792, 2013.
  882. Restrepo R, Hagerott HE, Kulkarni S, et al: Acute pancreatitis in pediatric patients: demographics, Etiology, and diagnostic imaging, AJR 206:632Ц644, 2016.
  883. Tenner S, Baillie J, De Witt J, et al: American college of gastroenterology guideline: management of acute pancreatitis, Am J Gastroenterol 108:1400Ц1415, 2013.
  884. Van Brunschot S, van Grinsven J, van Santvoort HC, et al: Endoscopic or surgical step-up approach for infected necrotizing pancreatitis: a multicenter randomized trial, Lancet 391:51Ц58, 2018.
  885. Vaughn VM, Shuster D, Rogers MAM, et al: Early versus delayed feeding in patients with acute pancreatitis, Ann Intern Med 166(12):883Ц892, 2017.
  886. Wu BU, Hwang JQ, Gardner TH, et al: Lactated ringerТs solution reduces systemic inflammation compared with saline in patients with acute pancreatitis, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:710Ц717, 2011.
  887. Yadav D, Nair S, Norkus EP, Pitchumoni CS: Nonspecific hyperamylasemia and hyperlipasemia in diabetic ketoacidosis: incidence and correlation with biochemical abnormalities, Am J Gastroenterol 95(11):3123Ц3128, 2000.
  888. Cannon JW, Callery MP, Vollmer CM Jr: Diagnosis and management of pancreatic pseudocysts: what is the evidence?, J Am Coll Surg 209:385Ц393, 2009.
  889. Forsmark CE, Vege SS, Wilcox CM: Acute pancreatitis, N Engl J Med 375(20):1972Ц1981, 2016.
  890. Ramesh J, Bang JY, Trevino J, et al: Endoscopic ultrasound guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections in children, JPGN 56:30Ц35, 2013
  891. Chung EM, Travis MD, Conran RM: Pancreatic tumors in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation, Radiographics 26:1211Ц1238, 2006.
  892. Dekelbab B, Sperling M: Recent advances in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, Acta Paediatr 95:1157Ц1164, 2006.
  893. Geetika K, OТDorisio S, Menda Y, et al: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in children and young adults, Pediatr Radiol 38:251Ц259, 2008.
  894. van den Akker M, Angelini P, Taylor G, et al: Malignant pancreatic tumors in children: a single-institution series, J Pediatr Surg 4:681Ц687, 2012.
  895. Vassos N, Agaimy A, Klein P, et al: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas: case series and literature review on an enigmatic entity, Int J Clin Exp Pathol 6(6):1051Ц1059, 2013.
  896. Bates MD, Balistreri WF: The gastrointestinal tract: development of the human digestive system. In Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, editors: Neonatal-perinatal medicine: diseases of the fetus and infant, ed 7, St. Louis, 2002, Mosby, pp 1255Ц1263.
  897. Cardinale V, Wang Y, Carpino G, et al: The biliary tree-a reservoir of multipotent stem cells, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:231Ц240, 2012.
  898. Carpentier R, Su?er RE, van Hul N, et al: Embryonic ductal plate cells give rise to cholangiocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and adult liver progenitor cells, Gastroenterology 141:1432Ц1438, 2011.
  899. Halilbasic E, Baghdasaryan A, Trauner M: Nuclear receptors as drug targets in cholestatic liver diseases, Clin Liver Dis 17:161Ц189, 2013.
  900. Hirschfield GM, Heathcote EJ, Gershwin ME: Pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease and therapeutic approaches, Gastroenterology 139:1481Ц1496, 2010.
  901. Hofmann A: Bile acids: trying to understand their chemistry and biology with the hope of helping patients, Hepatology 49:1403Ц1418, 2009.
  902. Hofmann JJ, Zovein AC, Koh H, et al: Jagged1 in the portal vein mesenchyme regulates intrahepatic bile duct development: insights into Alagille syndrome, Development 137:4061Ц4072, 2010.
  903. Lemaigre FP: Mechanisms of liver development: concepts for understanding liver disorders and design of novel therapies, Gastroenterology 137:62Ц79, 2009.
  904. Lemaigre F, Zaret KS: Liver development update: new embryo models, cell lineage control, and morphogenesis, Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:582Ц590, 2004.
  905. Raynaud P, Tate J, Callens C, et al: A classification of ductal plate malformations based on distinct pathogenic mechanisms of biliary dysmorphogenesis, Hepatology 53:1959Ц1966, 2011.
  906. Roskams T, Desmet V: Embryology of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, the ductal plate, Anat Rec 291:628Ц635, 2008.
  907. Strazzabosco M, Fabris LL: Development of the bile ducts: essentials for the clinical hepatologist, J Hepatol 56:1159Ц1170, 2012.
  908. Vestentoft PS, Jelnes P, Hopkinson BM, et al: Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver, BMC Dev Biol 11:56, 2011.
  909. Wuestefeld T, Zaret K: Liver development: from endoderm to hepatocyte. In Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF, editors: Liver disease in children, ed 3, New York, 2007, Cambridge University Press, pp 3Ц13.
  910. Zaret KS: Regulatory phases of early liver development: paradigms of organogenesis, Nat Rev Genet 3:499Ц512, 2002.
  911. Bates MD, Balistreri WF: The gastrointestinal tract: development of the human digestive system. In Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, editors: Neonatal-perinatal medicine: diseases of the fetus and infant, ed 7, St. Louis, 2002, Mosby, pp 1255Ц1263.
  912. Cardinale V, Wang Y, Carpino G, et al: The biliary tree-a reservoir of multipotent stem cells, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:231Ц240, 2012.
  913. Carpentier R, Su?er RE, van Hul N, et al: Embryonic ductal plate cells give rise to cholangiocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and adult liver progenitor cells, Gastroenterol≠ogy 141:1432Ц1438, 2011.
  914. Halilbasic E, Baghdasaryan A, Trauner M: Nuclear receptors as drug targets in cholestatic liver diseases, Clin Liver Dis 17:161Ц189, 2013.
  915. Hirschfield GM, Heathcote EJ, Gershwin ME: Pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease and therapeutic approaches, Gastroenterology 139:1481Ц1496, 2010.
  916. Hofmann A: Bile acids: trying to understand their chemistry and biology with the hope of helping patients, Hepatology 49:1403Ц1418, 2009.
  917. Hofmann JJ, Zovein AC, Koh H, et al: Jagged1 in the portal vein mesenchyme regulates intrahepatic bile duct development: insights into Alagille syndrome, Development 137:4061Ц4072, 2010.
  918. Lemaigre FP: Mechanisms of liver development: concepts for understanding liver disorders and design of novel therapies, Gastroenterology 137:62Ц79, 2009.
  919. Lemaigre F, Zaret KS: Liver development update: new embryo models, cell lineage control, and morphogenesis, Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:582Ц590, 2004.
  920. Raynaud P, Tate J, Callens C, et al: A classification of ductal plate malformations based on distinct pathogenic mechanisms of biliary dysmorphogenesis, Hepatology 53:1959Ц1966, 2011.
  921. Roskams T, Desmet V: Embryology of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, the ductal plate, Anat Rec 291:628Ц635, 2008.
  922. Strazzabosco M, Fabris LL: Development of the bile ducts: essentials for the clinical hepatologist, J Hepatol 56:1159Ц1170, 2012.
  923. Vestentoft PS, Jelnes P, Hopkinson BM, et al: Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver, BMC Dev Biol 11:56, 2011.
  924. Wuestefeld T, Zaret K: Liver development: from endoderm to hepatocyte. In Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF, editors: Liver disease in children, ed 3, New York, 2007, Cambridge University Press, pp 3Ц13.
  925. Zaret KS: Regulatory phases of early liver development: paradigms of organogenesis, Nat Rev Genet 3:499Ц512, 2002.
  926. Ecochard-Dugelay E, Lambert V, Schleich JM, et al: Portopulmonary hypertension in liver disease presenting in childhood, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 61(3):346Ц354, 2015.
  927. Fussner LA, Krowka MJ: Current approach to the diagnosis and management of portopulmonary hypertension, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 18(6):29, 2016.
  928. Jensen MK, Alonso MH, Nathan J, et al: Liver transplantation in children: indications and surgical aspects. In Suchy FS, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF, editors: Liver disease in children, ed 4, Cambridge, 2013, Cambridge University Press.
  929. Kremer AE, Namer B, Bolier R, et al: Pathogenesis and management of pruritus in PBC and PSC, Dig Dis 33(Suppl 2):164Ц175, 2015.
  930. Low G, Alexander GJ, Lomas DJ: Hepatorenal syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment, Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015:207012, 2015.
  931. Shneider BL, de Ville de Goyet J, Leung DH, et al: Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in children and the role of MesoRex bypass: summary of the Baveno VI Pediatric Satellite Symposium, Hepatology 63(4):1368Ц1380, 2016.
  932. Srivastava A, Chaturvedi S, Gupta RK, et al: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in children with chronic liver disease: prevalence, pathogenesis and magnetic resonance-based diagnosis, J Hepatol 2016 Nov 1. pii: S0168-8278.
  933. Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF: Liver disease in children, ed 4, Cambridge, 2013, Cambridge University Press.
  934. Al-Hussaini A, Faqeih E, El-Hattab A, et al: Clinical and molecular characteristics of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome associated with neonatal cholestasis and liver failure, J Pediatr 164:553Ц559, 2014.
  935. Bessho K, Bezerra JA: Biliary atresia: will blocking inflammation tame the disease?, Annu Rev Med 62:171Ц185, 2011.
  936. Bessho K: Complications and quality of life in long-term survivors of biliary atresia with their native livers, J Pediatr 167(6):1202Ц1206, 2015.
  937. Bezerra JA, Davenport M, et al: Biliary atresia and other cholestatic childhood diseases: advances and future challenges, J Hepatol 65(3):631Ц642, 2016.
  938. Bezerra JA, Spino C, Magee JC, et al: Use of corticosteroids after hepatoportoenterostomy for bile drainage in infants with biliary atresia: the START randomized clinical trial, JAMA 311:1750Ц1759, 2014.
  939. Brumbaugh D, Mack C: Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in children, Pediatr Rev 33:291Ц302, 2012.
  940. Carlton VE, Harris BZ, Puffenberger EG, et al: Complex inheritance of familial hypercholanemia with associated mutations in TJP2 and BAAT, Nat Genet 34:91Ц96, 2003.
  941. Chardot C, Serinet MO: Prognosis of biliary atresia: what can be further improved, J Pediatr 148:432Ц435, 2006.
  942. Chen ST, Chen HL, Su YN, et al: Prenatal diagnosis of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2, J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:1390Ц1393, 2008.
  943. Chiu CY, Chen PH, Chan CF, et al: Biliary atresia in preterm infants in Taiwan: a nationwide survey, J Pediatr 163:100Ц103, 2013.
  944. Clifton MS, Romero R, Ricketts RR: Button cholecystostomy for management of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis syndromes, J Pediatr Surg 46:304Ц307, 2011.
  945. Cowan E, Nandivada P, Puder M: Fish oil-based emulsion in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 25:193Ц200, 2013.
  946. Davenport M, Tizzard SA, Underhill J, et al: The biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome: a 28-year single-center retrospective study, J Pediatr 149:393Ц400, 2006.
  947. Gu YH, Yokoyama K, Mizuta K, et al: Stool color card screening for early detection of biliary atresia and long-term native liver survival: a 19-year cohort study in Japan, J Pediatr 166:897Ц902, 2015.
  948. Heissat S, Collardeau-Frachon S, Baruteau J, et al: Neonatal hemochromatosis: diagnostic work-up based on a series of 56 cases of fetal death and neonatal liver failure, J Pediatr 166:66Ц73, 2015.
  949. Heubi JE, Setchell KDR, Bove KE: Inborn errors of bile acid metabolism, Semin Liver Dis 27:282Ц294, 2007.
  950. Hinds R, Davenport M, Mieli-Vergani G, et al: Antenatal presentation of the biliary atresia, J Pediatr 144:43Ц46, 2004.
  951. Hopkins PC, Yazigi N, Nylund CM: Incidence of biliary atresia and timing of hepatoportoenterostomy in the United States, J Pediatr 187:253Ц257, 2017.
  952. Hussain MH, Alizai N, Patel B: Outcomes of laparoscopic kasai portoenterostomy for biliary atresia: a systematic review, J Pediatr Surg 52(2):264Ц267, 2017.
  953. Imanieh MH, Dehghani SM, Bagheri MH, et al: Triangular cord sign in detection of biliary atresia: is it a valuable sign?, Dig Dis Sci 55:172Ц175, 2010.
  954. Kamath BM, Bauer RC, Loomes KM, et al: NOTCH2 mutations in alagille syndrome, J Med Genet 49(2):138Ц144, 2012.
  955. Kamath BM, Schwarz KB, Hadzi? N: Alagille syndrome and liver transplantation, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50:11Ц15, 2010.
  956. Klomp LW, Vargas JC, van Mil SW, et al: Characterization of mutations in ATP8b1 associated with hereditary cholestasis, Hepatology 40:27Ц38, 2004.
  957. Lee WS, Sokol RJ: Mitochondrial hepatopathies: advances in genetics, therapeutic approaches, and outcomes, J Pediatr 163(4):942Ц948, 2013.
  958. Mack CL, Feldman AG, Sokol RJ: Clues to the etiology of bile duct injury in biliary atresia, Semin Liver Dis 32:307Ц316, 2012.
  959. Mack CL: What causes biliary atresia? Unique aspects of the neonatal immune system provide clues to disease pathogenesis, Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 1:267Ц274, 2015.
  960. Metzelder ML, Bottlander M, Melter M, et al: Laparoscopic partial external biliary diversion procedure in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis: a new approach, Surg Endosc 19:1641Ц1643, 2015, 2005.
  961. Mizuochi T, Kimura A, Ueki I, et al: Molecular genetics and bile acid profiles in two Japanese patients with 3?-hydroxy-?5-c27-steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase deficiency, Pediatr Res 68:258Ц263, 2010.
  962. Muraji T, Hosala N, Irie N, et al: Maternal microchimerism in underlying pathogenesis of biliary atresia: quantification and phenotypes of maternal cells in the liver, Pediatrics 121:517Ц531, 2008.
  963. Santos JL, Choquette M, Bezerra JA: Cholestatic liver disease in children, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 12:30, 2010.
  964. Schneider BL, Magee JC, Bezerra JA, et al: Efficacy of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation in infants with biliary atresia, Pediatrics 130:e607Цe614, 2012.
  965. Schreiber RA, Barker CC, Roberts EA, et al: Biliary atresia: the Canadian experience, J Pediatr 151:659Ц665, 2007.
  966. Serinet MO, Wildhaber BE, Broue P, et al: Impact of age at kasai operation on its results in late childhood and adolescence: a rational basis for biliary atresia screening, Pediatrics 123:1280Ц1286, 2009.
  967. Sheflin-Finding S, Annuziato RA, Chu J, et al: Liver transplantation for neonatal hemochromatosis: analysis of the UNOS database, Pediatr Transplant 19(2):164Ц169, 2015.
  968. Shih HH, Lin TM, Chuang JH, et al: Promotor polymorphism of the CD14 endotoxin receptor gene is associated with biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal cholestasis, Pediatrics 116:437Ц441, 2005.
  969. Shneider BL, Brown MB, Haver B, et al: A multicenter study of the outcome of biliary atresia in the United States, 1997 to 2000, J Pediatr 148:467Ц474, 2006.
  970. Shneider BL, Magee JC, Bezerra JA, et al: Efficacy of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation in infants with biliary atresia, Pediatrics 130:e607Цe614, 2012.
  971. Sokol RJ: Biliary atresia screening: why, when, and how?, Pediatrics 123:e951Цe952, 2009.
  972. Taylor SA, Kelly S, Alonso EM, Whitington PF: The effects of gestational alloimmune liver disease on fetal and infant morbidity and mortality, J Pediatr 196:123Ц128, 2018.
  973. The Medical Letter: Cholic acid (cholbam) for bile acid synthesis disorders, Med Lett 58(1493):56, 2016.
  974. Togawa T, Sugiura T, Ito K, et al: Molecular genetics dissection and neonatal/infantile intrahepatic cholestasis using targeted next-generation sequencing, J Pediatr 171:171Ц177, 2016.
  975. Turnpenny PD, Ellard S: Alagille syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management, Eur J Hum Genet 20:251Ц257, 2012.
  976. Utterson EC, Shepherd RW, Sokol RJ, et al: Biliary atresia: clinical profiles, risk factors, and outcomes of 755 patients listed for liver transplantation, J Pediatr 147:180Ц185, 2005.
  977. van Mil SW, van der Woerd WL, van der Brugge G, et al: Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 is caused by mutations in ABCB11, Gastroenterology 127:379Ц384, 2004.
  978. Whitington PF, Kelly S: Outcome of pregnancies at risk for neonatal hemochromatosis is improved by treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, Pediatrics 121:e1615Цe1621, 2008.
  979. Willot S, Uhlein S, Michaud L, et al: Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on liver function in children after successful surgery for biliary atresia, Pediatrics 122:e1236Цe1241, 2008.
  980. Canu G, Minucci A, Zuppi C, et al: Gilbert and crigler najjar syndromes: an update of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene mutation database, Blood Cells Mol Dis 50(4):273Ц280, 2013.
  981. Claridge LC, Arnstrong MJ, Booth C, et al: GilbertТs syndrome, BMJ 342:975Ц976, 2011.
  982. Farrar JS, Palais RA, Wittwer CT: Snapback primer genotyping of the gilbert syndrome UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter polymorphism by high-resolution melting, Clin Chem 57:1303Ц1310, 2011.
  983. Hafkamp AM: Orlistat treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in Crigler-najjar disease: a randomized controlled trial, Pediatr Res 62:725Ц730, 2007.
  984. Hsieh TY, Shiu TY, Huang SM, et al: Molecular pathogenesis of GilbertТs syndrome: decreased TATA-binding protein binding affinity of UGT1A1 gene promoter, Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:229Ц236, 2007.
  985. Hughes RD, Mitry RR, Dhawan A: Current status of hepatocyte transplantation, Transplantation 93:342Ц347, 2012.
  986. Memon N, Weinberger BI, Hegyi T, et al: Inherited disorders of bilirubin clearance, Ped Res 79(3):378Ц386, 2015.
  987. Ribes-Koninckx C, Ibars EP, Calzado Agrasot MA, et al: Clinical outcome of hepatocyte transplantation in four pediatric patients with inherited metabolic diseases, Cell Transplant 21:2267Ц2282, 2012.
  988. Uchiumi T, Tanamachi H, Kuchiwaki K, et al: Mutation and functional analysis of ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 in a Japanese patient with Dubin-johnson syndrome, Hepatol Res 43(5):569Ц575, 2013.
  989. Van de Steeg E, Stranecky V, Hartmannova H, et al: Complete OATP1B1 and OAT1b3 deficiency causes human rotor syndrome by interrupting conjugated bilirubin reuptake into the liver, J Clin Invest 122:519Ц528, 2012.
  990. Ala A, Walker AP, Ashkan K, et al: WilsonТs disease, Lancet 369:397Ц408, 2007.
  991. Chesi G, et al: Identification of p38 MAPK and JNK as new targets for correction of wilson disease-causing ATP7B mutants, Hepatology 63:1842Ц1859, 2016.
  992. Heinz Weiss K, Thurik F, Gotthardt DN, et al: Efficacy and safety of oral chelators in treatment of patients with wilson disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:1028Ц1035, 2013.
  993. Korman JD, Volenberg I, Balko J, et al: Screening for wilson disease in acute liver failure: a comparison of currently available diagnostic tests, Hepatology 48(4):1167Ц1174, 2008.
  994. Roberts EA, Schilsky ML: Diagnosis and treatment of wilson disease: an update, Hepatology 47:2089Ц2111, 2008.
  995. Rodriguez B, Burguera J, Berenuer M: Response to different therapeutic approaches in wilson disease. A long-term follow up study, Ann Hepatol 11:907Ц914, 2012.
  996. Rodriguez-Castro KI, et al: WilsonТs disease: a review of what we have learned, World J Hep 7(29):2859Ц2870, 2015.
  997. Taly AB, Meenakshi-Sundaram S, Sinha S, et al: Wilson disease. Description of 282 patients evaluated over 3 decades, Medicine (Baltimore) 82:112Ц121, 2007.
  998. Zhang S, Chen S, Li W, et al: Rescue of ATP7B in hepatocyte-like cells from WilsonТs disease induced pluripotent stem cells using gene therapy or the chaperone drug curcumin, Hum Mol Genet 20:3176Ц3187, 2011.
  999. Nayak NC, Chitale AR: Indian childhood cirrhosis and ICC-like disease: the changing scenario of facts versus notions, Indian J Med Res 137(6):1029Ц1042, 2013.
  1000. Patra S, Vij M, Kancherala R, et al: Is Indian childhood cirrhosis an extinct disease now?Чan observational study, Indian J Pediatr 80(8):651Ц654, 2013.
  1001. Sriramachari S, Nayak NC: Indian childhood cirrhosis: several dilemmas resolved, Indian J Med Res 128:93Ц96, 2008.
  1002. Tao TY, Gitlin JD: Hepatic copper metabolism: insights from genetic disease, Hepatology 37:1241Ц1247, 2003.
  1003. Feldman AG, Whitington PF: Neonatal hemochromatosis, J Clin Exp Hepatology 4(3):313Ц320, 2013.
  1004. Rand EB, Karpen SJ, Kelly S, et al: Treatment of neonatal hemochromatosis with exchange transfusion and intravenous immunoglobulin, J Pediatr 155:566Ц571, 2009.
  1005. Whitington PF, Kelly S: Outcome of pregnancies at risk for neonatal hemochromatosis is improved by treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, Pediatrics 121:e1615Цe1621, 2008.
  1006. Chen ST, Su YN, Ni YH, et al: Diagnosis of neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency using high-resolution melting analysis and a clinical scoring system, J Pediatr 161:626Ц631, 2012.
  1007. Lomas DA, Hurst JR, Gooptu B: Update on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: new therapies, J Hepatology 65:413Ц424, 2016.
  1008. Nelson D, Teckman J, Di Bisceglie A, et al: Diagnosis and management of patients with ?1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:575Ц580, 2012.
  1009. Ohura T, Kobayash Y, Tazawa D, et al: Clinical pictures of 75 patients with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), J Inherit Metab Dis 30:139Ц144, 2007.
  1010. Silverman GA, Pak SC, Perlmutter DH: Disorders of protein misfolding: alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as prototype, J Pediatr 163:320Ц326, 2013.
  1011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among children aged 24Ц35 monthsЧUnited States, 2006 and 2007, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58:689Ц694, 2009.
  1012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Update: prevention of hepatitis A after exposure to hepatitis A virus and in international travelers. Updated recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP), MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56:1080Ц1084, 2007.
  1013. Ciocca M, Moreira-Silva SF, Alegria S, et al: Hepatitis A as an etiologic agent of acute liver failure in latin America, Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:711Ц716, 2007.
  1014. Dorell CG, Yankey D, Byrd KK, et al: Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, Pediatrics 129:213Ц221, 2012.
  1015. Koslap-Petraco MB, Shub M, Judelsohn R: Hepatitis A: disease burden and current childhood vaccination strategies in the united states, J Pediatr Health Care 22:3Ц11, 2008.
  1016. Lieberman JM, Word BM, Jacobs RJ, et al: Universal hepatitis A vaccination in the United States: a call for action, Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:287Ц291, 2008.
  1017. Nelson NP: Updated dosing instruction for immune globulin (human) gamaSTAN S/D for hepatitis A virus prophylaxis, MMWR 66(36):959Ц960, 2017.
  1018. Sharapov UM, Bulkow LR, Negus SE, et al: Persistence of hepatitis A vaccine induced seropositivity in infants and young children by maternal antibody status: 10-year follow-up, Hepatology 56:516Ц522, 2012.
  1019. Victor JC, Monto AS, Surdina TY, et al: Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis, N Engl J Med 357:1685Ц1694, 2007.
  1020. Chen HL, Lin LH, Hu FC, et al: Effects of maternal screening and universal immunization to prevent mother-to-infant transmission of HBV, Gastroenterology 142:773Ц781, 2012.
  1021. Cooke GS, Main J, Thursz MR: Treatment for hepatitis B, BMJ 340:87Ц90, 2010.
  1022. DТAntiga L, Aw M, Mieli-Vergani G, et al: Combined lamivudine/interferon alpha treatment in immunotolerant children perinatally infected with hepatitis B: a pilot study, J Pediatr 148:228Ц233, 2006.
  1023. Falade-Nwulia O, Seaberg EC, Rinalso CR, et al: Comparative risk of liver-related mortality from chronic hepatitis B versus chronic hepatitis C virus infection, Clin Infect Dis 55:507Ц513, 2012.
  1024. Haber BA, Block JM, Jonas MM, et al: Recommendations for screening, monitoring, and referral of pediatric chronic hepatitis B, Pediatrics 124:e1007Цe1013, 2009.
  1025. Jonas MM, Block JM, Haber BA, et al: Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options, Hepatology 52:2192Ц2205, 2010.
  1026. Kao JH, Chen DS: Hepatitis B vaccination: to boost or not to boost?, Lancet 366:1337Ц1338, 2005.
  1027. Lai CL, Yuen MF: Chronic hepatitis BЧnew goals, new treatment, N Engl J Med 359: 2488Ц2491, 2008.
  1028. Marcellin P, Gane E, Buti M, et al: Regression of cirrhosis during treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for chronic hepatitis B: a 5-year open-label follow-up study, Lancet 381:468Ц475, 2013.
  1029. McMahon BJ, Bulkow LR, Singleton RJ, et al: Elimination of hepatocellular carcinoma and acute hepatitis B in children 25 years after a hepatitis B newborn and catch-up immunization program, Hepatology 54:801Ц807, 2011.
  1030. Moses J, Alkhouri N, Shannon A: Hepatitis B immunity and response to booster vaccination in children with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab, Am J Gastroenterol 107:133Ц138, 2012.
  1031. Murray KF, Shah U, Mohan N, et al: Chronic hepatitis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47:225Ц233, 2008.
  1032. Murray KF, Szenborn L, Wysocki J, et al: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B, Hepatology 56:2018Ц2026, 2012.
  1033. Pan CQ, Duan Z, Dai E, et al: Tenofovir to prevent hepatitis B transmission in mothers with high viral load, NEJM 374(24):2324Ц2334, 2016.
  1034. Pan CQ, Duan ZP, Bhamidimarri KR, et al: An algorithm for risk assessment and intervention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:452Ц459, 2012.
  1035. Pan CQ, Duan ZP, Dai E, et al: Tenofovir to prevent hepatitis B transmission in mothers with high viral load, N Engl J Med 374(24):2324Ц2334, 2016.
  1036. Pan CQ, Han GR, Jiang HX, et al: Telbivudine prevents vertical transmission from HBeAg-positive women with chronic hepatitis B, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10: 520Ц526, 2012.
  1037. Schillie S, Vellozzi C, Reingold A, et al: Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices, MMWR 67(1):1Ц29, 2018.
  1038. Shah U, Kelly D, Chang MH, et al: Management of chronic hepatitis B in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48:399Ц404, 2009.
  1039. Sorrell MF, Belongia EA, Costa J, et al: National institutes of health consensus development conference statement: management of hepatitis B, Ann Intern Med 150:104Ц109, 2009.
  1040. The Medical Letter: Telbivudine (Tyzeka) for chronic hepatitis B, Med Lett Drugs Ther 49:11Ц12, 2007.
  1041. Balistreri WF, Murray KF, Rosenthal P, et al: The safety and effectiveness of Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents 12-17 years old with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection, Hepatology 2016. [Epub ahead of print].
  1042. Blackard JT, Shata MT, Shire NJ, et al: Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem, Hepatology 47:321Ц331, 2008.
  1043. Bortolotti F, Verucchi G, Camma C, et al: Long-term course of chronic hepatitis C in children: from viral clearance to end-stage liver disease, Gastroenterology 134:1900Ц1907, 2008.
  1044. Bourliore M, Gordon SC, Flamm SL, et al: Sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir for previously treated HCV infection, N Engl J Med 376(22):2134Ц2146, 2017.
  1045. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Testing for HCV infections: an update of guidance for clinicians and laboratorians, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62(18):362Ц364, 2013.
  1046. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection in women of childbearing age and potential risk for vertical transmissionЧUnited States and kentucky, 2011-2014, MMWR 65(28):705Ц710, 2016.
  1047. Delgado-Borrego A, Smith L, Jonas MM, et al: Expected and actual case ascertainment and treatment rates for children infected with hepatitis C in Florida and the United States: epidemiologic evidence from statewide and nationwide surveys, J Pediatr 161:915Ц921, 2012.
  1048. Dusheiko G, Burney T: Hepatitis C treatment: interferon free or interferon freer?, Lancet 381:2063Ц2065, 2013.
  1049. Federal Drug Administration: FDA approves Mavyret for hepatitis C.
  1050. Federal Drug Administration: FDA approves two hepatitis C drugs for pediatric patients.
  1051. Fernandez-Rodriguez CM, Alonso S, Martinez SM, et al: Peginterferon plus ribavirin and sustained virological response in HCV-related cirrhosis: outcomes and factors predicting response, Am J Gastroenterol 105:2164Ц2172, 2010.
  1052. Hoofnagle JH: A step forward in therapy for hepatitis C, N Engl J Med 360(18):1899Ц1901, 2009.
  1053. Indolfi G, Serranti D, Resti M: Direct-acting antivirals for children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C, Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2:298Ц304, 2018.
  1054. Jacobson IM, Gordon SC, Kowdley KV, et al: Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options, N Engl J Med 368:1867Ц1876, 2013.
  1055. Jacobson IM, Lim JK, Fried MW: American gastroenterological association institute clinical practice updateЧexpert review: care of patients who have achieved a sustained virologic response after antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection, Gastroenterology 152(6):1578Ц1587, 2017.
  1056. Janssen HLA, Reesink HW, Lawitz EJ, et al: Treatment of HCV infection by targeting microRNA, N Engl J Med 368:1685Ц1694, 2013.
  1057. Jonas MM, Balistreri W, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, et al: Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial, Hepatology 56:523Ц531, 2012.
  1058. Kowdley KV, Lawitz E, Crespo I, et al: Sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for treatment-na?ve patients with hepatitis C genotype-1 infection (ATOMIC): an open-label, randomized, multicenter phase 2 trial, Lancet 381:2100Ц2106, 2013.
  1059. Liang TJ, Ghany MG: Current and future therapies for hepatitis C virus infection, N Engl J Med 368:1907Ц1916, 2013.
  1060. Lok AS, Gardiner DF, Lawitz E, et al: Preliminary study of two antiviral agents for hepatitis C genotype 1, N Engl J Med 366:216Ц224, 2012.
  1061. Ly KN, Jiles RB, Teshale EH, et al: Hepatitis C virus infection among reproductive-ages women and children in the United States, 2006 to 2014, Ann Intern Med 166:775Ц782, 2017.
  1062. Mack CL, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Gupta N, et al: NASPGHAN practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of hepatitis C infection in infants, children, and adolescents, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54:838Ц855, 2012.
  1063. Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ: Acute hepatitis C, Lancet 372:321Ц332, 2008.
  1064. McHutchison JG, Everson GT, Gordon SC, et al: Telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic HCV genotype 1 infection, N Engl J Med 360:1827Ц1838, 2009.
  1065. McHutchison JG, Lawitz EJ, Shiffman ML, et al: Peginterferon alfa-2b or alfa 2a with ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C infection, N Engl J Med 361:580Ц592, 2009.
  1066. Milazzo L, Antinori S: STAT-C: a full revolution or just a step forward, Lancet 376:662Ц663, 2010.
  1067. Muir AJ, Shiffman ML, Zaman A, et al: Phase 1b study of pegylated interferon lambda 1 with or without ribavirin in patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection, Hepatology 52:822Ц832, 2010.
  1068. Nash KL, Bentley I, Hirschfield GM: Managing hepatitis C virus infection, BMJ 339:37Ц42, 2009.
  1069. Nwaohiri A, Schillie S, Bulterys M: Towards elimination of hepatitis C virus infection in children, Lancet 2:235Ц236, 2018.
  1070. Osinusi A, Meissner EG, Lee YJ, et al: Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 in patients with unfavorable treatment characteristics, JAMA 310:804Ц811, 2013.
  1071. Pacanowski M, Amur S, Zineh I: New genetic discoveries and treatment for hepatitis C, JAMA 307:1921Ц1922, 2012.
  1072. Poordad F, Lawitz E, Kowdley KV, et al: Exploratory study of oral combination antiviral therapy for hepatitis C, N Engl J Med 368:45Ц52, 2013.
  1073. Rodriguez-Torres M, Jeffers LJ, Sheikh MY, et al: Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in latino and non-latino whites with hepatitis C, N Engl J Med 360:257Ц267, 2009.
  1074. Sarrazin C, Iskakov V, Svarovskaia ES, et al: Late relapse versus hepatitis C virus reinfection in patients with sustained virologic response after sofosbuvir-based therapies, CID 64:44Ц52, 2017.
  1075. Smith BD, Morgan RL, Beckett GA, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945-1965, MMWR 61(4):1Ц32, 2012.
  1076. The Medical Letter: Drugs for hepatitis C, Med Lett Drugs Ther 54:81Ц82, 2012.
  1077. The Medical Letter: Mavyret and voseviЧtwo new combinations for chronic HCV infection, Med Lett 59(1531):166Ц168, 2017.
  1078. Watts T, Stockman L, Martin J, et al: Increased risk for mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus among medicaid recipientsЧwisconsin, 2011-2015, MMWR 66(42):1136Ц1139, 2017.
  1079. Wiktor SZ, Scott JD: What is the impact of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection?, Lancet 390:107Ц108, 2017.
  1080. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Investigation of hepatitis E outbreak among refugeesЦupper nile, South Sudan, 2012-2013, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:581Ц586, 2013.
  1081. Emerson SU, Purcell RH: Hepatitis E, Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1147Ц1148, 2007.
  1082. Hepatitis E vaccine: Why wait?, Lancet 376:845, 2010.
  1083. Holmberg SD: Hepatitis E vaccine: not a moment too soon, Lancet 376:849Ц850, 2010.
  1084. Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH: Hepatitis E, N Engl J Med 367:1237Ц1244, 2012.
  1085. Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, et al: Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients, N Engl J Med 385:811Ц817, 2008.
  1086. Kuniholm MH, Purcell RH, McQuillan GM, et al: Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in the United States: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988Ц1994, J Infect Dis 200:48Ц56, 2009.
  1087. Chavez-Tapia NC, Hernandez-Calleros J, Tellez-Avila FI, et al: Image-guided percutaneous procedure plus metronidazole versus metronidazole alone for uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess, Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):Article number CD004886, 2009.
  1088. Du ZQ, Zhang LN, Lu Q, et al: Clinical characteristics and outcome of pyogenic liver abscess with different size: 15-year experience from a single center, Sci Rep 6:35890, 2016.
  1089. Fotedar R, Stark D, Beebe N, et al: Laboratory diagnostic techniques for entamoeba species, Clin Microbiol Rev 20:511Ц532, 2007.
  1090. Kaplan GG, Gregson DB, Laupland KB: Population-based study of the epidemiology of and the risk factors for pyogenic liver abscess, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:1032Ц1038, 2004.
  1091. Liu L, Chen W, Lu X, et al: Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective study of 105 cases in an emergency department from east China, J Emerg Med 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2016.09.026. [Epub ahead of print].
  1092. Lobbert C, Wiegand J, Karlas T: Therapy of liver abscesses, Viszeralmedizin 30:334Ц341, 2014.
  1093. Mavilia MG, Molina M, Wu GY: The evolving nature of hepatic abscess: a review, J Clin Transl Hepatol 4:158Ц168, 2016.
  1094. Semerci SY, Babayigit A, Cebeci B, et al: Hepatic abscesses in preterm infants: report of three cases and review of the literature, J Trop Pediatr 62:255Ц260, 2016.
  1095. Stanley SL: Amoebiasis, Lancet 361:1025Ц1034, 2003.
  1096. Tsai F-C, Huang Y-T, Chang L-Y, Wang J-T: Pyogenic liver abscess as endemic disease, Taiwan, Emerg Infect Dis 14:1592Ц1600, 2008.
  1097. Aubart M, Ou P, Elie C, et al: Longitudinal MRI and ferritin monitoring of iron overload in chronically transfused and chelated children with sickle cell anemia and thalassemia major, J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 38(7):497Ц502, 2016. PMID 27548334.
  1098. Chandrakasan S, Filipovich AH: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, J Pediatr 163(5):1253Ц1259, 2013. PMID 23953723.
  1099. Franceschet I, Cazzagon N, Del Ross T, et al: Primary Sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease: an observational study in a Southern Europe population focusing on new therapeutic options, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28(5):508Ц513, 2016. PMID 26872110.
  1100. Lee WS, Sokol RJ: Intestinal Microbiota, Lipids, and the Pathogenesis of Intestinal FailureЦAssociated Liver Disease, J Pediatr 167(3):519Ц526, 2015.
  1101. Leffler DA, Green PH, Fasano A: Extraintestinal manifestations of coeliac disease, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 12(10):561Ц571, 2015. PMID 26260366.
  1102. Myers KC, Dandoy C, El-Bietar J, et al: Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in the absence of elevation in bilirubin in pediatric patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 21(2):379Ц381, 2015. PMID 25300869.
  1103. Pichler J, Simchowitz V, Macdonald S, et al: Comparison of liver function with two new/mixed intravenous lipid emulsions in children with intestinal failure, Eur J Clin Nutr 68(10):1161Ц1167, 2014. PMID 24961544.
  1104. Pundi K, Pundi KN, Kamath PS, et al: Liver disease in patients after the Fontan operation, Am J Cardiol 117(3):456Ц460, 2016. PMID:26704027.
  1105. Richardson PG, Riches ML, Kernan NA, et al: Phase 3 trial of defibrotide for the treatment of severe vena-occlusive and multiorgan failure, Blood 127(13):1656Ц1665, 2016. PMID 26825712.
  1106. Sathe MN, Freeman AJ: Gastrointestinal, pancreatic and hepatibiliary manifestations of cystic fibrosis, Pediatr Clin North Am 63(4):679Ц698, 2016. PMID 27469182.
  1107. Thorvaldson L, Remberger M, Winiarski J, et al: HLA, GVHD, and parenteral nutrition are risk factors for hepatic complications in pediatric HSCT, Pediatr Transplant 20(1):96Ц104, 2016. PMID 26518451.
  1108. Abdou RM, Zhu L, Baker RD, et al: Gut Microbiota of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Dig Dis Sci 61(5):1268Ц1281, 2016. PMID 26898658.
  1109. Africa JA, Newton KP, Schwimmer JB: Lifestyle interventions including nutrition, exercise, and supplements for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children, Dig Dis Sci 61(5):1375Ц1386, 2016. PMID 27041377.
  1110. Carbone LJ, Angus PW, Yeomans ND: Incretin-based therapies for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Gastroenterol Hepatol 31(1):23Ц31, 2016. PMID 26111358.
  1111. Della Corte C, Mazzotta AR, Nobili V: Fatty liver disease and obesity in youth, Curr Open Endocrinol Obes 23(1):66Ц71, 2016. PMID 26702852.
  1112. Diehl AM, Day C: Cause, pathogenesis, and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, N Engl J Med 377(21):2063Ц2072, 2017.
  1113. Harrison SA, Rinella ME, Abdelmalek MF, et al: NGM282 for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a multicenter, ransomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, Lancet 391:1174Ц1184, 2018.
  1114. Himes RW, Barlow SE, Bove K, et al: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency unmasked in two children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Pediatrics 138(4):e20160214, 2016.
  1115. Kohli R, Sunduram S, Mouzaki M, et al: Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a report from the expert committee on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (ECON), J Pediatr 172:9Ц13, 2016.
  1116. Schwimmer JB: Clinical advances in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Hepatology 63(5):1718Ц1725, 2016. PMID 27100147.
  1117. Yan Y, Hou D, Zhao X, et al: Childhood adiposity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood, Pediatrics 139(4):e20162738, 2017.
  1118. Al-Hussaini A, Faqeih E, El-Hattab AW, et al: Clinical and molecular characteristics of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome associated with neonatal cholestasis and liver failure, J Pediatr 164:553Ц559, 2014.
  1119. Casey JP, McGettigan P, Lynam-Lennon N, et al: Identification of a mutation in LARS as a novel cause of infantile hepatopathy, Mol Genet Metab 106(3):351Ц358, [1096-7192] Casey yr:2012.
  1120. Casteels-Van Daele M, Van Geet C, Wounter C, et al: Reyes syndrome revisited: a descriptive term covering a group of heterogeneous disorders, Eur J Pediatr 159:641Ц648, 2000.
  1121. Ducluzeau PH, Lachaux A, Bouvier R, et al: Progressive reversion of clinical and molecular phenotype in a child with liver mitochondrial DNA depletion, J Hepatol 36:698Ц703, 2002.
  1122. Feldman AG, Sokol RJ, et al: Lactate and lactate: pyruvate ratio in the diagnosis and outcomes of pediatric acute liver failure, J Pediatr 2017 Jan 12. pii: S0022-3476(16)31430-5.
  1123. Hazard FK, Ficicioglu CH, Ganesh J, Ruchelli ED: Liver pathology in infantile mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, Pediatr Dev Pathol 16:415Ц424, 2013.
  1124. Karadimus CL, Vu TH, Holve SA, et al: Navajo neurohepatopathy is caused by a mutation in the MPV17 gene, Am J Hum Genet 79:544Ц548, 2006.
  1125. Lee WS, Sokol RJ: Mitochondrial hepatopathies: advances in genetics and pathogenesis, Hepatology 45:1555Ц1565, 2007.
  1126. Lee WS, Sokol RJ: Mitochondrial hepatopathies: advances in genetics, therapeutic approaches and outcomes, J Pediatr 163:942Ц948, 2013.
  1127. Mancuso M, Filosto M, Tsujino S, et al: Muscle glycogenosis and mitochondrial hepatopathy in an infant with mutations in both the myophosphorylase and deoxyguanosine kinase genes, Arch Neurol 60:1445Ц1447, 2003.
  1128. Marzia B, Teresa R, Daniela V, et al: Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 415:300Ц304, 2011.
  1129. McFarland R, Hudson G, Taylor RW, et al: Reversible valproate hepatotoxicity due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase ? (POLG1), Arch Dis Child 93:151Ц153, 2008.
  1130. Molleston JP1, Sokol RJ, Karnsakul W, et al: Evaluation of the child with suspected mitochondrial liver disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 57(3):269Ц276, 2013. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31829ef67a.
  1131. Nguyen RK, Sharief FS, Chan SSL, et al: Molecular diagnosis of Alpers syndrome, J Hepatol 45:108Ц116, 2006.
  1132. Parikh S, et al: Solid organ transplantation in primary mitochondrial disease: proceed with caution, Mol Genet Metab 118(3):178Ц184, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.04.009.
  1133. Rahman S: Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of mitochondrial disorders, J Inherit Metab Dis 36:659Ц673, 2013.
  1134. Spinazzola A, Santer R, Akman OH, et al: Hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, Arch Neurol 65(8):1108Ц1113, 2008.
  1135. Vineta F, Heike K: Mitochondrial hepatopathies in the newborn period, Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 16:222Ц228, 2011.
  1136. Jimenez-Rivera C., Ling S.C., Ahmed N., et al: Incidence and characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis, Pediatrics 136:e1237Цe1248, 2015.
  1137. Kerkar N., Yanni G.: СDe novoТ and СrecurrentТ autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation: a comprehensive review, J Autoimmun 66:17Ц24, 2016.
  1138. Liberal R., Grant C.R., Longhi M.S., et al: Diagnostic criteria of autoimmune hepatitis, Autoimmun Rev 13:435Ц440, 2014.
  1139. Liberal R., Krawitt E.L., Vierling J.M., et al: Cutting edge issues in autoimmune hepatitis, J Autoimmun 75:6Ц19, 2016.
  1140. Longhi M.S., Mieli-Vergani G., Vergani D.: Autoimmune hepatitis, Curr Pediatr Rev 10:268Ц274, 2014.
  1141. Maggiore G., Socie G., Sciveres M., et al: Seronegative autoimmune hepatitis in children: spectrum of disorders, Dig Liver Dis 48:785Ц791, 2016.
  1142. Rodrigues A.T., Liu P.M., Fagundes E.D., et al: Clinical characteristics and prognosis in children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis and overlap syndrome, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 63:76Ц81, 2016.
  1143. Zizzo A.N., Valentino P.L., Shah P.S., Kamath B.M.: Second-line agents in pediatric patients with autoimmune hepatitis: a systematic review and Meta-analysis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 65(1):6Ц15, 2017.
  1144. Alfirevic A, Pirmohamed M: Genomics of adverse drug reactions, Trends Pharmacol Sci 38:100Ц109, 2017.
  1145. Amin MD, Harpavat S, Leung DH: Drug-induced liver injury in children, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:625Ц633, 2015.
  1146. Conrad MA, Cui J, Lin HC: Sertraline-associated cholestasis and ductopenia consistent with vanishing bile duct syndrome, J Pediatr 169:313Ц315, 2016.
  1147. Goodman ZD: Phenotypes and pathology of Drug-induced liver disease, Clin Liver Dis 21:89Ц101, 2017.
  1148. Haslan H, Suhaimi FH, Das S: Herbal supplements and hepatotoxicity: A short review, Nat Prod Commun 10:1779Ц1784, 2015.
  1149. Hines RN: Developmental expression of drug metabolizing enzymes: impact on disposition in neonates and young children, Int J Pharm 452:3Ц7, 2013.
  1150. Navarro V, Khan I, Bjornsson E, et al: Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements, Hepatology 65(1):363Ц373, 2017.
  1151. Ocete-Hita E, Salmeron-Fernandez MJ, Urrutia-Maldonado E, et al: Analysis of immunogenetic factors in idiosyncratic Drug-induced liver injury in the paediatric population, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64(5):742Ц747, 2017.
  1152. Ricciuto A, Kamath BM, Walters TD, et al: New onset autoimmune hepatitis during anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment in children, J Pediatr 194:128Ц135, 2018.
  1153. Tailor A, Faulkner L, Naisbitt DJ, Park BK: The chemical, genetic and immunological basis of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, Hum Exp Toxicol 34:1310Ц1317, 2015.
  1154. Asrani SK, Simonetto DA, Kamath PS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:2128Ц2139, 2015.
  1155. Bigelow AM, Scott JP, Hong JC, et al: Human parechovirus as a cause of isolated pediatric acute liver failure, Pediatrics 138(5):e20160233, 2016.
  1156. Bitar R, Thwaites R, Davison S, et al: Liver failure in early infancy: aetiology, Presentation, and outcome, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64:70Ц75, 2017.
  1157. Cardenas V, DiPaola F, Adams SD, et al: Acute liver failure secondary to neuroblastoma amplified sequence deficiency, J Pediatr 186:179Ц182, 2017.
  1158. Feldman AG, Sokol RJ, Hardison RM, et al: Lactate and lactate: pyruvate ration in the diagnosis and outcomes of pediatric acute liver failure, J Pediatr 182:217Ц222, 2017.
  1159. Feldman AG, Whitington PF: Neonatal hemochromatosis, J Clin Exp Hepatol 3:313Ц320, 2013.
  1160. Jain V, Dhawan A: Prognostic modeling in pediatric acute liver failure, Liver Transplant 22:1418Ц1430, 2016.
  1161. Jimenez-Rivera C, Nightingale S, Benchimol EI, et al: Outcomes in infants listed for liver transplantation: a retrospective cohort study using the united network for organ sharing database, Pediatr Transplant 20:904Ц911, 2016.
  1162. Kathemann S, Bechmann LP, Sowa JP, et al: Etiology, outcome and prognostic factors of childhood acute liver failure in a german single center, Ann Hepatol 14:722Ц728, 2015.
  1163. Li R, Belle SH, Horslen S, et al: Clinical course among cases of acute liver failure of indeterminate diagnosis, J Pediatr 171:163Ц170, 2016.
  1164. Li R, Belle SH, Horslen S, et al: Pediatric acute liver failure study G. Clinical course among cases of acute liver failure of indeterminate diagnosis, J Pediatr 171:163Ц170, e161Цe163, 2016.
  1165. Lu BR, Gralla J, Liu E, et al: Evaluation of a scroing system for assessing prognosis in pediatric acute liver failure, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6(10):1140Ц1145, 2008.
  1166. Narkewicz MR, Horslen S, Belle SH, et al: Prevalence and significance of autoantibodies in children with acute liver failure, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64:210Ц217, 2017.
  1167. Ng VL, Li R, Loomes KM, et al: Outcomes of children with and without hepatic encephalopathy from the pediatric acute liver failure study group, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 63:357Ц364, 2016.
  1168. Sorensen LG, Neighbors K, Zhang S, et al: Neuropsychological functioning and health-related quality of life: pediatric acute liver failure study group results, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 60:75Ц83, 2015.
  1169. Staufner C, Haack TB, Kopke MG, et al: Recurrent acute liver failure due to NBAS deficiency: phenotypic spectrum, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic concepts, J Inherit Metab Dis 39:3Ц16, 2016.
  1170. Taylor SA, Whitington PF: Neonatal acute liver failure, Liver Transpl 22:677Ц685, 2016.
  1171. Uchida H, Sakamoto S, Fukuda A, et al: Sequential analysis of variable markers for predicting outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure, Hepatology Res 47:1241Ц1251, 2017.
  1172. Wijdicks EFM: Hepatic encephalopathy, N Engl J Med 375(17):1660Ц1670, 2016.
  1173. Zamora R, Vodovotz Y, Mi Q, et al: Data-driven modeling for precision medicine in pediatric acute liver failure, Mol Med 22:2016.
  1174. Cnossen WR, Drenth JP: Polycystic liver disease: an overview of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management, Orphanet J Rare Dis 9:69, 2014.
  1175. Guay-Woodford LM, Bissler JJ, Braun MC, et al: Consensus expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: report of an international conference, J Pediatr 165:611Ц617, 2014.
  1176. Gunay-Aygun M, Font-Montgomery E, Lukose L, et al: Characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis in a large cohort of patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, Gastroenterology 144:112Ц121 e112, 2013.
  1177. Hartung EA, Guay-Woodford LM: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: a hepatorenal fibrocystic disorder with pleiotropic effects, Pediatrics 134:e833Цe845, 2014.
  1178. Hogan MC, Abebe K, Torres VE, et al: Liver involvement in early autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:155Ц164 e156, 2015.
  1179. Hoyer PF: Clinical manifestations of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, Curr Opin Pediatr 27:186Ц192, 2015.
  1180. Lewis VA, Adam SZ, Nikolaidis P, et al: Imaging of choledochal cysts, Abdom Imaging 40:1567Ц1580, 2015.
  1181. Martin RF: Biliary cysts: a review and simplified classification scheme, Surg Clin North Am 94:219Ц232, 2014.
  1182. Nordin AB, Fallon SC, Carter BA, Brandt ML: Congenital hepatic cyst with antenatal diagnosis: a case report and literature review, Pediatr Surg Int 29:847Ц850, 2013.
  1183. Ohashi T, Wakai T, Kubota M, et al: Risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts, J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28:243Ц247, 2013.
  1184. Park E, Lee JM, Ahn YH, et al: Hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases in children, Pediatr Nephrol 31:113Ц119, 2016.
  1185. Rawat D, Kelly DA, Milford DV, et al: Phenotypic variation and long-term outcome in children with congenital hepatic fibrosis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 57:161Ц166, 2013.
  1186. Ronnekleiv-Kelly SM, Soares KC, Ejaz A, Pawlik TM: Management of choledochal cysts, Curr Opin Gastroenterol 32:225Ц231, 2016.
  1187. Soares KC, Arnaoutakis DJ, Kamel I, et al: Choledochal cysts: presentation, clinical differentiation, and management, J Am Coll Surg 219:1167Ц1180, 2014.
  1188. Srinath A, Shneider BL: Congenital hepatic fibrosis and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54:580Ц587, 2012.
  1189. Wong JK, Campbell D, Ngo ND, et al: Genetic study of congenital bile-duct dilatation identifies de novo and inherited variants in functionally related genes, BMC Med Genomics 9:75, 2016.
  1190. Zhang DY, Fei Z, Shen XZ, et al: CaroliТs disease: a report of 14 patients and review of the literature, J Dig Dis 13:491Ц495, 2012.
  1191. Cotton PB, Elta GH, Carter CR, et al: Gallbladder and sphincter of oddi disorders, Gastroenterology 2016.
  1192. Johnson JJ, Garwe T, Katseres N, Tuggle DW: Preoperative symptom duration predicts success in relieving abdominal pain caused by biliary dyskinesia in a pediatric population, J Pediatr Surg 48:796Ц800, 2013.
  1193. Kelley-Quon LI, Dokey A, Jen HC, Shew SB: Complications of pediatric cholecys≠tectomy: impact from hospital experience and use of cholangiography, J Am Coll Surg 218:73Ц81, 2014.
  1194. Kiewiet JJS, Leeuwenburgh MMN, Bipat S, et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of imaging in acute cholecystitis, Radiology 264(3):708Ц720, 2012.
  1195. Lee JH, No YE, Lee YJ, et al: Acalculous diffuse gallbladder wall thickening in children, Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 17:98Ц103, 2014.
  1196. Mahida JB, Sulkowski JP, Cooper JN, et al: Prediction of symptom improvement in children with biliary dyskinesia, J Surg Res 198:393Ц399, 2015.
  1197. Poddighe D, Tresoldi M, Licari A, Marseglia GL: Acalculous acute cholecystitis in previously healthy children: general overview and analysis of pediatric infectious cases, Int J Hepatol 2015:459608, 2015.
  1198. Rothstein DH, Harmon CM: Gallbladder disease in children, Semin Pediatr Surg 25:225Ц231, 2016.
  1199. Santucci NR, Hyman PE, Harmon CM, et al: Biliary dyskinesia in children: a systematic review, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64:186Ц193, 2017.
  1200. Suchy FJ: Anatomy, anomalies and pediatric disorders of the biliary tract. In Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, editors: Gastrointestinal and liver disorders, ed 10, Philadelphia, 2016, WB Saunders, pp 1055Ц1077.
  1201. Walker SK, Maki AC, Cannon RM, et al: Etiology and incidence of pediatric gallbladder disease, Surgery 154:927Ц931, 2013, discussion 931-923.
  1202. Bozic MA, Puri K, Molleston JP: Screening and prophylaxis for varices in children with liver disease, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 17:27, 2015.
  1203. Duche M, Ducot B, Ackermann O, et al: Portal hypertension in children: high-risk varices, primary prophylaxis and consequences of bleeding, J Hepatol 66:320Ц327, 2017.
  1204. Ecochard-Dugelay E, Lambert V, Schleich JM, et al: Portopulmonary hypertension in liver disease presenting in childhood, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 61:346Ц354, 2015.
  1205. Ge PS, Runyon BA: Treatment of patients with cirrhosis, N Engl J Med 375(8):767Ц777, 2016.
  1206. Gugig R, Rosenthal P: Management of portal hypertension in children, World J Gastroenterol 18(11):11, 2012.
  1207. Jeanniard-Malet O, Duche M, Fabre A: Survey on clinical practice of primary prophylaxis in portal hypertension in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016.
  1208. Lv Y, He C, Guo W, et al: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for extrahepatic portal venous obstruction in children, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 62:233Ц241, 2016.
  1209. McKiernan P, Abdel-Hady M: Advances in the management of childhood portal hypertension, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:575Ц583, 2015.
  1210. Ng NB, Karthik SV, Aw MM, Quak SH: Endoscopic evaluation in children with end-stage liver disease-associated portal hypertension awaiting liver transplant, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 63:365Ц369, 2016.
  1211. Pimenta JR, Ferreira AR, Fagundes ED, et al: Factors associated with bleeding secondary to rupture of esophageal varices in children and adolescents with cirrhosis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 64:e44Цe48, 2017.
  1212. Pinto RB, Schneider AC, da Silveira TR: Cirrhosis in children and adolescents: an overview, World J Hepatol 7:392Ц405, 2015.
  1213. Shneider BL, de Ville de Goyet J, Leung DH, et al: Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in children and the role of MesoRex bypass: summary of the Baveno VI Pediatric Satellite Symposium, Hepatology 63:1368Ц1380, 2016.
  1214. Sood V, Lal BB, Khanna R, et al: Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis in pediatric population, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016.
  1215. Tantemsapya N, Superina R, Wang D, et al: Hepatic histology and morphometric measurements in idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis in children, correlated to clinical outcome of Meso-Rex bypass, Ann Surg 2016.
  1216. Abt PL, Rapaport-Kelz R, Desai NM, et al: Survival among pediatric liver transplant recipients: impact of segmental grafts, Liver Transpl 10(10):1287Ц1293, 2004.
  1217. Austin MT, Leys CM, Feurer ID, et al: Liver transplantation for childhood hepatic malignancy: a review of the united network for organ sharing (UNOS) database, J Pediatr Surg 41(1):182Ц186, 2006.
  1218. Baliga P, Alvarez S, Lindblad A, et al: Posttransplant survival in pediatric fulminant hepatic failure: the SPLIT experience, Liver Transpl 10(11):1364Ц1371, 2004.
  1219. Banff Working Group, Demetris AJ: Liver biopsy interpretation for causes of late liver allograft dysfunction, Hepatology 44(2):489Ц501, 2006.
  1220. Bucuvalas JD, Alonso E, Magee JC, et al: Improving long-term outcomes after liver transplantation in children, Am J Transplant 8:2506Ц2513, 2008.
  1221. Calne RY: Early days of liver transplantation, Am J Transplant 8(9):1775Ц1778, 2008.
  1222. Chardot C, Serinet M-O: Prognosis of biliary atresia: what can be further improved?, J Pediatr 148(4):432Ц435, 2006.
  1223. Dell-Olio D, Kelly DA: Calcineurin inhibitor minimization in pediatric liver allograft recipients, Pediatr Transplant 13:670Ц681, 2009.
  1224. Freeman RB, Wiesner RH, Roberts JP, et al: Improving liver allocation: MELD and PELD, Am J Transplant 4(Suppl 9):114Ц131, 2004.
  1225. Horslen S, Barr ML, Christensen LL, et al: Pediatric transplantation in the United States, 1996Ц2005, Am J Transplant 7(Suppl 1):1339Ц1358, 2007.
  1226. Jain A, Mazariegos G, Kashyap R, et al: Comparative long-term evaluation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in pediatric liver transplantation, Transplantation 70(4):617Ц625, 2000.
  1227. Kamdar KY, Rooney CM, Heslop HE: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease following liver transplantation, Curr Opin Organ Transplant 16(3):274Ц280, 2011.
  1228. Martin SR, Atkison P, Anand R, et al: Studies of pediatric liver transplantation 2002: patient and graft survival and rejection in pediatric recipients of a first liver transplant in the United States and Canada, Pediatr Transplant 8(3):273Ц283, 2004.
  1229. Mcdiarmid SV, Anand R, Lindblad AS, et al: Development of a pediatric end-stage liver disease score to predict poor outcome in children awaiting liver transplantation, Transplantation 74(2):173Ц181, 2002.
  1230. Neuberger J, Gimson A: Selfless adults and split donor livers, Lancet 370:299Ц300, 2007.
  1231. Ng V, et al: Health status of children alive 10 years after pediatric liver transplanta≠tion performed in the US and Canada: report of the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience, J Pediatr 1Ц10, 2011.
  1232. Ng VL, Fecteau A, Shepherd R, et al: Outcomes of 5-year survivors of pediatric liver transplantation: report on 461 children from a north American multicenter registry, Pediatrics 122:e1128Цe1135, 2008.
  1233. Otte JB, Pritchard J, Aronson DC, et al: Liver transplantation for hepatoblastoma: results from the international society of pediatric oncology (SIOP) study SIOPEL-1 and review of the world experience, Pediatr Blood Cancer 42(1):74Ц83, 2003.
  1234. Peeters PM, Sieders E, De Jong KP, et al: Comparison of outcome after pediatric liver transplantation for metabolic diseases and biliary atresia, Eur J Pediatr Surg 11(1):28Ц35, 2001.
  1235. Reyes J, Gerber D, Mazariegos GV, et al: Split liver transplantation: a comparison of ex vivo and in situ techniques, J Pediatr Surg 35(2):283Ц290, 2000.
  1236. Reyes J, Jain A, Mazariegos G, et al: Long-term results after conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in pediatric liver transplantation for acute and chronic rejection, Transplantation 69:2573Ц2580, 2000.
  1237. Sokal EM, Caragiozoglou T, et al: Epstein-barr virus serology and Epstein-barr virusЦassociated lymphoproliferative disorders in pediatric liver transplant recipients, Transplantation 56:1294, 1993.
  1238. Squires RH Jr, Shneider BL, Bucuvalas J, et al: Acute liver failure in children: the first 348 patients in the pediatric acute liver failure study group, J Pediatr 148(5):652Ц658, 2006.
  1239. Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M, et al: Cell migration and chimerism after whole-organ transplantation: the basis of graft acceptance, Hepatology 17:1127Ц1152, 1993.
  1240. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN): Home page. http://www.unos.org.
  1241. Chang TS, Ricketts R, Abramowsky CR, et al: Mesenteric cystic masses: a series of 21 pediatric cases and review of the literature, Fetal Pediatr Pathol 30(1):2011.
  1242. Oelhafen KK, et al: Peritoneal bands: a review of anatomical distribution and clinical implications, Am Surg 78(4):377Ц384, 2012.
  1243. Pampal A, Yagmuriu A: Successful laparoscopic removal of mesenteric and omental cysts in toddlers: 3 cases with a literature review, J Pediatr Surg 47(8):e5Цe8, 2012.
  1244. Tan JJ, Tan KK, Chew SP: Mesenteric cysts: an institution experience over 14 years and review of literature, World J Surg 33(9):1961Ц1965, 2009. doi:10.1007/s00268-009-0133-0.
  1245. Wootton-Gorges SL, Thomas KB, Harned RK, et al: Giant cystic abdominal masses in children, Pediatr Radiol 35(12):1277Ц1288, 2005.
  1246. Zanchi C, Salierno P, Bellomo R: Primary acute omental torsion in an overweight girl, J Pediatr 160:525, 2012.
  1247. Aslam M, DeGrazia M, Gregory MLP: Diagnostic evaluation of neonatal ascites, Am J Perinatol 24:603Ц610, 2007.
  1248. Bhardwaj R, Vaziri H, Gautam A, et al: Chylous ascites: a review of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, J Clin Transl Hepatol 6(1):105Ц113, 2018.
  1249. Draganov PC, Senousy BE: Evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites, World J Gastroenterol 15:67Ц80, 2009.
  1250. Giefer MJ, Murray KF, Colletti RB: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of pediatric ascites, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52(5):503Ц513, 2011.
  1251. Karnsakul W, Ingviya T, Seaberg E, et al: Ascites in children: a single-center experience of 27 years, JPGN 64(1):83Ц88, 2017.
  1252. Landmann E, Rau W, Vollerthun M, et al: Nonchylous lymphatic ascites after appendectomy, J Pediatr 149:425, 2006.
  1253. Sabri M, Saps M, Peters JM: Pathophysiology and management of pediatric ascites, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 5:240Ц246, 2003.
  1254. Steinemann DC, Dindo D, Clavien PA, et al: Atraumatic chylous ascites: systematic review on symptoms and causes, J Am Coll Surg 212:899Ц905, e1Цe4, 2011.
  1255. Vieira SMG, Matte U, Kieling CO, et al: Infected and noninfected ascites in pediatric patients, JPGN 40:289Ц294, 2005.
  1256. Yildirim AE, Altun R, Can S, et al: Idiopathic chylous ascites treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. A case report and review of the literature, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:961Ц963, 2011.
  1257. Singh S, Khardori NM: Intra-abdominal and pelvic emergencies, Med Clin North Am 96:1171Ц1191, 2012.
  1258. Runyon BA: Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update, Hepatology 49:2087Ц2107, 2009.
  1259. Singh S, Khardori NM: Intra-abdominal and pelvic emergencies, Med Clin North Am 96:1171Ц1191, 2012.
  1260. Singh S, Khardori NM: Intra-abdominal and pelvic emergencies, Med Clin North Am 96:1171Ц1191, 2012.
  1261. Warady BA, Bakkaloglu S, Newland J, et al: Consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections and peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis: 2012 update, Perit Dial Int 32(Suppl 2):S32ЦS86, 2012.
  1262. Feagins LA, Holubar SD, Kane SV, et al: Current strategies in the management of intra-abdominal abscesses in CrohnТs disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:842Ц850, 2011.
  1263. Coats RD, Helikson MA, Burd RS: Presentation and management of epigastric hernias in children, J Pediatr Surg 35:1754Ц1756, 2000.
  1264. Neblett KW, Holcomb TM: Umbilical and other abdominal wall hernias. In Ashcraft KW, Holder TM, editors: Pediatric surgery, Philadelphia, 1993, WB Saunders, pp 557Ц561.
  1265. Richards AT, Quinn TH, Fitzgibbons RJ Jr: Epigastric hernias. In Mulholland MW, Lillemoe KD, Doherty GM, et al, editors: GreenfieldТs surgery: scientific principles and practice, ed 4, Philadelphia, 2006, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp 1201Ц1202.
  1266. Skandalakis J, Gray SQW, Rickets R: The anterior abdominal wall. In Skandalakis JG, editor: Embryology for surgeons, ed 2, Baltimore, 1994, Williams & Wilkins, pp 540Ц593.

“руды отечественных авторов при подготовке статей по педиатрии дл€ пользователей сайта - не использовались, так как их вы всегда можете найти в библиотеках.

- ¬ернутьс€ в раздел "ѕедиатри€"

–едактор: »скандер ћилевски. ƒата обновлени€ публикации: 30.4.2024

ћедунивер ћы в Telegram ћы в YouTube ћы в VK ‘орум консультаций врачей  онтакты, реклама
»нформаци€ на сайте подлежит консультации лечащим врачом и не замен€ет очной консультации с ним.
—м. подробнее в пользовательском соглашении.